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American Indian Cultural Areas

Describes the major American Indian geocultural areas in North America.
by

Bernadette Lear

on 26 December 2012

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Transcript of American Indian Cultural Areas

Jennifer R. Rycenga. Religion in America. San Jose State University, 15 Nov. 2012. Web. available online at <http://www.sjsu.edu/people/jennifer.rycenga/courses/RelS191F12/> Voyageurs National Park. "Quill Lake." National Park Service, 15 Nov. 2012. Web. <http://www.nps.gov/voya/index.htm> Eastern Woodlands Some Tribal Groups
Anishinaabe (Chippewa/ Ojibwe)
Iroquois
Menominee
Micmac
Penobscot
Pequot
Wampanoag
Wyanadot (Huron) Big Cypress National Reserve. "Florida Panther." National Park Service. Web, 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/bicy/forteachers/hardwood-hammocks.htm> Southeast Some Tribal Groups
Cherokee
Chickasaw
Choctaw
Creek
Seminole American Indian Cultural Areas Badlands National Park. "Bison." National Park Service. Web, 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/badl/naturescience/Bison.htm> Great Plains Some Notable Authors
Vine Deloria
Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve
Charles A. Eastman
John Joseph Mathews
N. Scott Momaday
Zitkala Sa
Luther Standing Bear
James Welch Organ Pipe National Park. "Saguaro Cactus in Bloom." National Park Service. Web, 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/orpi/naturescience/saguaro-cactus.htm> Southwest Some Tribal Groups
Apache
Hopi
Navajo
Pueblo
Tohono O'Odham
Tewa
Yaqui
Zuni Northwest Coast Some Tribal Groups
Colville
Haida
Salish
Tlingit
Tsimshian
Yurok Umatilla National Forest. "Wildflowers." United States Department of Agriculture. Web, 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fs.usda.gov/umatilla> (C) Bernadette A. Lear, ENGL 297, 2012 Great Basin Bryce Canyon National Park. "Odd Hoodo in the Snow." National Park Service. Web, 18 Nov. 2012 <http://www.nps.gov/brca/photosmultimedia/Winter-scenes.htm> Some Notable Authors
Janice Gould
Greg Sarris Plateau Some Tribal Groups
Coeur d'Alene
Klamath
Nez Perce
Okanagan
Salish (Flathead)
Spokane
Yakima Nez Perce National Historical Park. "Camas Flowers>' National Park Service. Web, 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/nepe/naturescience/wildflowers.htm> Arctic & Subarctic (2 Regions) Some Tribal Groups
Aleut
Cree
Eskimo / Inuit U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "May 2012 National Home Page Stories." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Web. 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fws.gov/phmay2012.html> California National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. :Big Sur Coastline." NOAA. Web, 17 Nov. 2012. <http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2008/20080212_thankyou.html> Folktales
Sedna (mistress of sea animals / underworld) Some Notable Authors
Beth Cuthand
Rita Joe
Mary TallMountain Geography
Alaska
Canada
Greenland "A vast desert of cold ice, treeless tundra, and rocky islands and beaches ... this land is a difficult one, though with a stark and fantastic beauty of its own" (Bastian and Mitchell 9). Associated Words
Birchbark
Canoes / Kayaks
Caribou / Moose
Fish
Furs
Hare
Ice Floes
Igloos (Aleut)
Otter
Polar Bears
Seals
Sled Dogs
Spruce
Trapping
Tundra
Walrus
Whales Notable Authors
Duane Niatum Geography
Southern Alaska
British Columbia
Coastal Washington
Coastal Oregon
Northern California Associated Words
Berries
Canoes
Caribou / Moose
Cedar
Goats
Ocean
Potlatch
Rivers
Seals / Sea Lions
Salmon
Totem Poles
Whales Folktales
"Meeting of the Wild Animals"
"Raven Lights the World" More than 100 Tribal Groups
Chumash
Maidu
Miwok
Pomo
Wintun Associated Words
Acorns
Basketweaving
Cattails
Fish / Shellfish
Missions
Tule
Villages Folktales
? "Conditions allowed the native peoples to flourish ... California was marked by a great complexity of tribal groups and languages ... Their spearation by mountain, valley, and coastland .... fostered divergence" (Bastian and Mitchell 14). Some Tribal Groups
Bannock
Paiute
Shoshone
Ute
Washo Geography
Nevada
Utah
Parts of CA, OR, ID, WY, CO Associated Words
Cactus
Desert
Horses
Juniper
Lizards
Mountains
Pine Nuts
Pinon
Rabbits
Sagebrush
Salt Flats
Snakes Folktales
"Blood Clot" Some Notable Authors
Sarah Winnemucca Some Notable Authors
Sherman Alexie
Gloria Bird
Janet Campbell Hale
Mourning Dove
D'Arcy McNickle Folktales
"Creation of the White and the Red Races" Geography
Columbia and Fraser River Basins
OR, ID
Parts of BC, MT, WA, WY Associated Words
Berries
Bullrushes
Camas (Lily)
Cedar
Cottonwoods
Deer, Elk
Log Homes
Rabbits
Salmon, Sturgeon
Sheep
Spruce
Trout "The Columbia, the Frasier, and their tributaries were the lifeblood of this landlocked region. Numerous small villages were located on their hospitable banks, travel and trade flourished, and were inevitably accompanied by cultural interchanges" (Bastian and Mitchell 17). Some Tribal Groups
Blackfeet
Cheyenne
Comanche
Crow
Kiowa
Sioux Geography
From Rocky Mountains to Mississippi River Associated Words
Bison / Buffalo
Cottonwoods
Grassland
Horses
Prairie
Tipis Folktales
"Old Man Coyote Makes the World"
"Two Bullets and Two Arrows"
"Iktome Sleeps With His Wife"
"Life and Death of Sweet Medicine" Some Notable Authors
Paula Gunn Allen
Leslie Marmon Silko
Simon Ortiz
Wendy Rose
Luci Tapahonso
Laura Tohe Folktales
"Emerging into the Upper World"
"Man Who Married the Moon"
"Putting a Saddle on Coyote's Back" Geography
Arizona & New Mexico
Parts of UT, CO, & TX
Parts of Mexico Associated Words
Adobe
Beans
Cactus
Corn / Maize
Desert
Hogan
Juniper
Mesa
Mesquite
Pinon
Squash
Weaving
Yucca Some Notable Authors
Joy Harjo
Linda Hogan Geography
Appalachian Mountains
Southeastern States
Gulf of Mexico Associated Words
Beans
Corn / Maize
Cyress
Pine
Pumpkins / Squash
Wattle & Daub Folktales
"Mud Diver Story" Some Notable Authors
William Apess
Joseph Bruchac
Louise Erdrich
Tomson Highway
Maurice Kenny
Thomas King
Jim Northrup
Ruby Skipperjack
David Treuer
Gerald Vizenor Associated Words
Beaver
Birchbark
Corn
Deer
Fish
Forest / Woodlands
Lakes
Longhouse
Wild Rice Folktales
"Corn Mother"
"Foolish Girls"
"A New Way to Travel"
"Glooscap Grants Three Wishes"
"The Man Who Brought His Wife Back" Works Cited Bastian, Dawn E., and Judy K. Mitchell. Handbook of Native American Mythology. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.

Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. New York: Facts on File, 2009. Print. Geography
Eastern Seaboard & Great Lakes
Northeastern & Midwestern States
Parts of Southeastern Canada "The ocean tempers and moistens the prevailing westerly winds and the mountain varrier blocks the vapor-laden breezes, creating abundant rainfall ... nourishing a lush evergreen forest with some of the tallest trees in the world ... For Northwest Coast Indians, the ocean, rivers, and forests offered up plentiful fish and game" (Waldman 41). "The rivers and streams of the Great Basin drain form the flanking uplands into the vast central depression, disappearing into 'sinks.' Since the mountains to the east and west block the rain clouds, rainfall is low and evaporations is high .... Because of aridity throughout the basin, vegetation is sparse ... Without many large mammals, Great Basin Indians primarily were hunters of small game, such as rabbits, rodents, snakes, lizards, and birds, and gatherers of seeds, nuts, berries, roots, and insects. ... Great Basin life was an unreleenting quest for food, water, and firewood ..." (Waldman 38). "While rivers, rain, and oases make life possible in this hot, arid region of desert and mountains, the availability of water fluctuates and is always a concern. ... Because farming in the Southwest was labor-intensive, requiring irrigation and flood control, the peoples gradually tranformed into increasingly sophisticated, sedentary village-dwelling farmers with a diet centered on maize, beans, and squash" (Bastian and Mitchell 21). "Few, if any, of these peoples could trace their ancestry within the region back more than several hundred years. ... The region became a melting pot as drought elsewhere and increasing population pressure in the Woodlands causes tribes to converge from all four directions ... By 1700 the horse was available throughout the Plains, and the native poeple rapidly became peerless riders, trainers, and breeders, enabling them to adopt a nomaic lifestyle organized around the buffalo hunt. In fact, the buffalo became the focus of Plains Indian culture, the center of their social life and daily routine. Its flesh provided them with food, its hides with clothing and shelter" (Bastian and Mitchell 19). "Despite the great physiographical diversity, the culture has one constant: the forest, both deciduous area and coniferous. And for the Indians of this area, the trees of the forest were the primary material for shelter, tools, and fueu, and the aimals of the forest, esepcially, deer, were the primary food source" (Waldman 34) "Early explorers who penetrated the Southeast found a Native society that was one of the most advanced north of Mesoamerica, by which it was strongly influenced. The Southeastern Indians were accomplished builders and skilled craftsmen, farmers, fishermen, and hunters, who were knowledgeable in the use of herbs and medicines as well as conservation of natural resources" (Bastian and Mitchell 23)
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