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English for Academic Purposes (EAP)

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by

Javi Suarez

on 4 September 2014

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Transcript of English for Academic Purposes (EAP)

Starting point
EAP refers to any English teaching that relates to a study purpose
EAP
Different types of situations
EAP in an English-speaking country
Immigrant students
EAP in ESL situations
"Students needs are in the area of study skills and in adjusting to the abstract nature of the language theory or model building"
(Bazerman, 1988; Mason, 1990; Henderson and Hewings, 1990)
EAP situations in which certain subjects are taught in English
There is no particular or general tradition of English-medium education in the country
The school system mostly uses the national language to teach all subjects
Distinction between EGAP (1) and ESAP (2)
Dudley-Evans, T. & St John, M. (1998). Chapter 3 (pp. 34-42)
English for Academic Purposes (EAP)
Language of academic disciplines
Specific 'study skills"
STUDY SKILLS
CHANGE
CONTEXT
Course design
Material
TEACHER
EAP in an English-speaking country
EAP in an ESL situation
EAP situations in which certain subjects, such as medicine, are officially taught in English
EAP situations where subject courses are taught in the national language
Students come from another country to study in a foreign system; for them both general and academic culture may be different; everything around them operates in English
Education at all levels has been mainly in English; the Civil Service uses English, but people mostly use their first language (L1) in everyday life
In tertiary education some subjects are taught in L1, but others, such as engineering and science, are taught in English
All tertiary education is taught in the L1; English is an auxiliary language
Pre-sessional
Different types of courses
In-sessional
CAUSES
Their English tuition up to tertiary level will generally have been in the area of General English
In these countries there has also been a tradition of study of literary aspects of English
Students' Needs
Students' needs of
Situation 1
Situation 3
DIFFERENCE
Different unfortunate situations
Subject lecturers may deliver lectures in a mixture of English and the national language
Examinations and assignments will be written in English, but are designed so that they do not make large linguistic demands on students
Full essays or technical reports may not be required, and students will be tested through multiple choice questions, for instance
Students begin the courses with a much lower level of English than in the ESL situations described before
THE CRUCIAL THING IS THEN TO FIND OUT HOW ENGLISH IS REALLY USED
Graves (1975) talked of a difference between the FORMAL (1) and the INFORMAL (2) orders
(1) The official view of how the course runs and how students succeed or fail within the system

(2) "The same institution as perceived and operated by its members"
Graves (1975)
EAP situations where subject courses are taught in the national language
English is included on the timetable
English for General Academic Purposes
It isolates the skills associated with study activities such as listening to lectures; reading textbooks, articles and other reading material, and writing essays, examination answers,etc.
There are particular skills associated with each of these. For instance, writing an essay will involve the forming of accurate sentences the coherent structuring of the ideas and adopting the appropriate stance for citing previous work
English for Specific Academic Purposes
It integrates the skills work of EGAP with help for students in their actual subject tasks
Widdowson (1983) relates the specificity of an ESP class to a dichotomy he sets up between TRAINING (1) and EDUCATION (2)
(1) It involves the development of certain skills and familiarity with specific schemata

(2) It aims to develop a general capacity or set of procedures to cope with a wide range of needs
Full transcript