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Research Article Presentation- ED510
Transcript of Research Article Presentation- ED510
Intensity Objectives & Hypotheses Main Objective: "to examine the relative enjoyment of formal and informal recreation and leisure activity participation by children with disabilities (King et al., 2009)."
Hypothesis: "children who were typically developing would enjoy formal activites more than informal ones... whereas children with disabilities would report similar enjoyment of these two types of activities (King et al., 2009)."
Secondary Objective: "examine children's activity preferences and diversity and intensity of participation in formal versus informal activities (King et al., 2009)."
Hypothesis: "preferences would differ from actual or reported enjoyment... children with disabilities would take part in significantly fewer formal and informal activities and do so less intensely (King et al., 2009)." Purpose of Research King, Petrenchick, Law & Hurley (2009) indicated an abundance of research detailing the positive benefits of organized extra-curricular activities for school-aged children;
little is known about the participation of students with physical disabilities in these activities.
King et al.'s study aimed to:
examine the levels of enjoyment these two groups of students experience while participating in informal and formal extra-curricular activities.
compare preference and participation levels, in both formal and informal extracurricular activities, of students with physical disabilities and students who are developing typically. Gilian King, Theresa Petrenchik, Mary Law, and Partrica Hurley Research Design King et al. (2009) use a non-experimental, comparative research design in order to investigate the relationship between disability (the independent variable) and enjoyment, participation, preference and intensity of involvement in formal and informal activities (the dependent variables) between two different groups of students: students with a physical disability, and students who are developing typically. Additionally, I believe they appropriately justify their use of enjoyment as a proxy variable to the complex set of benefits individuals receive from formal activities. Sample Population SAMPLE 1 (purposeful sampling)
Students with Physical Disabilities
identified from 11 regional medical centers in Ontario, Canada.
represented both rural and urban populations
separated into 3 age groups
physical function of sample comparable to samples in other studies. Research Method Research Article Presentation for ED510.OL
Mace M. Gratz
Arcadia University The Enjoyment of Formal and Informal Recreation and Leisure Activities:
A comparison of school-aged children with and without physical disabilities 2009 Participation is a versatile measure of an individual's well-being in the community (King, Petrenchik, Law, & Hurley, 2009). Relation to Previous Research Previous research is cited to:
support benefits of formal activities in terms of appropriate development and well-being.
identify gaps of understanding in levels of participation in both samples.
support a construct that enjoyment is a valid proxy variable linked to intrinsic motivation and psychological engagement, and can be used to gauge the level of positive benefits an individual might obtain from participation in activities . My Opinion Clarity of First Objective and Hypothesis:
The authors provided evidence to support the prediction that students without physical disabilities may find greater enjoyment in formal activities due to research that indicates a high psychological engagement; however, they only provided nominal evidence supporting the prediction that students with physical disabilities would find the same amount of enjoyment in formal and informal activities. Formal activities vs. Informal activities First Hypothesis: Students with Physical Disabilities Students who are Developing Typically Formal activities vs. Informal activities Clarity of Second Objective and Hypothesis:
The authors provided a evidence to support the prediction that students with physical disabilities would participate in fewer formal activities based on past research; however, they provided nominal evidence for the prediction that preference would differ from enjoyment. Second Hypothesis: Students with Physical Disabilities Students who are Developing Typically Preference vs. Enjoyment
Intensity 3062 families met criteria and invited to participate
-84 did not have a valid mailing address
-510 determined to be ineligible (no details)
-1442 did not respond
-557 were not interested
-28 who withdrew
= 427 participants SAMPLE 2 (systematic sampling)
Students who were Developing Typically Developing
recruited from 16 random schools from district in London, Ontario, Canada.
distributed to every 2nd, 3rd, 4th child on alphabetical list. 2237 research packages distibuted
382 families agreed to participate
-28 excluded (missing data, ineligible)
=354 participants Both Samples:
Similar Family Status
Percentages of males to females
Racial make-up Obstacles Encountered Different racial and socio-economic demographics of both populations.
Researchers determined them to be similar enough for the purpose of the study.
Connection of participation in formal activities to developmental benefits gained from participation.
Use of enjoyment as proxy variable.
Proving population external validity of participants with physical disabilities.
Assessing characteristics of participants with standardized assessments and comparing these results to larger populations.
Selecting sample from rural and urban areas. Analysis of Results King et al. (2009) used descriptive statistical analysis (repeated-measure variance analysis between subject and with subjects) to find relationships between disability status and levels of enjoyment, preference, intensity, and diversity in formal and informal activities.
Children (overall) enjoy formal activities more than informal ones.
Children prefer informal activities more than formal ones.
Children take part in fewer formal activities.
Children took part more intensely in informal activities.
Disability status was significantly related to diversity, intensity and enjoyment of activities.
Children without disabilities enjoyed formal activities more than informal ones.
Children with disabilities enjoyed formal activities the same amount as informal ones.
Children with disabilities participate in fewest types of formal activities.
Children without disabilities participated most intensely in informal activities. Validity King et al. addressed external population validity, selection validity and instrumentation validity. Additionally, they compared analysis of co-variance with analysis of variance to account for potential threats involving participant age, gender, and social competence. Replication Further studies comparing children with disabilities to children without disabilities would offer further insight into practices that would benefit this populations pychological development.
Additionally, in order to deepen the understanding of the benefits of participation in formal activities, it is suggest that further research be conducted in the relationship of enjoyment in activities to developmental benefits (King et al., 2009).
It would be useful to replicate this study using a more diverse population, in terms of racial demographics and location in order to represent a more general U.S. population. Conclusion This research offers valuable insight into the discrepancy between the children with disabilities and children without disabilities, in terms of activities that benefit their psychological development. Also, it highlights the need to explore the relationship of enjoyment to these garnered benefits and preference to these garnered benefits, as enjoyment and preference were revealed to be indicative of separate psychological processes.
As a teacher, I will use this research to generally promote more formal activity participation for my students with disabilities. Additionally, this distinction between enjoyment and preference will play an important role in determining how I will assess the value of an activities in general. Data Collection used packages of self administered questionnaires sent to participants. Packages contained:
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE)
Preference of Activities for Children
Self-perception Profile for Children/Adolescents (depending on age of participants)
CAPE data collection was performed by a veteran interviewer for children with disabilities.
CAPES were administered during the same season to control this variable.
Gender, behavior difficulties, and aspects of self-concept were accounted for using covariance analysis (determined to not be a factor).
Questionnaires were validated in literature review, expert review, and pilot tests. Questionnaires were found to have consistent internal reliability during test-retest trials. King, G., Petrenchik, T., Law, M., & Hurley, P. (2009). The enjoyment of
formal and informal recreation and leisure activities: A comparison of school-aged children with and without physical disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 56(2), 109-130. doi: 10.1080/10349120902868558 References