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The Discrimination Model of Supervision
Transcript of The Discrimination Model of Supervision
Arthur, M.E. & Bernard, J.M., (2012). Application of the Discrimination Model of Supervision for Residency Education. Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education 18(1) 32-37.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K., (2009). Fundamentals of Clinical Supervision. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc..
Leddick, G.R., (1994). Models of clinical supervision. www.counseling.org
Quarto, C.J.,(2012). Clinical supervision: The discrimination model. www.youtube.com
Smith, K.L.,( 2009). A brief summary of supervision models. www.marquette.edu.
Instructor role to provide guidance and structure to supervisee
Used when supervisee needs instruction, modeling and direct feedback
Example: Supervisor offers to help supervisees with skills or clinical acumen
(Quarto, C.T., 2012)
Can you think of examples of this type of supervision that you have received as an intern or practicum student?
Flexible approach to supervision
Supervisor chooses intervention to meet the needs of the supervisee
Supervisors cannot rely on personal preferences or learning styles
It combines an attention to three supervisory roles with three areas of focus
Janine Bernard developed the model in mid-1970’s, later collaborated with Rodney Goodyear
One of first models developed for clinical supervision
Designed as a training model to help supervisors-in-training discriminate among their the various choices they had when selecting how to interact with their supervisees
(Smith, K.L., 2009), (Leddick, 1994)
The Story Behind the Model
What images does this word conjure up for you?
There are three separate focus areas called FOCI. The supervisor might focus on any or all of these supervisee traits.
Lanning in 1986 added a fourth FOCI
Helpful for supervisors when monitoring their supervisees beyond their counseling interactions with clients.
What supervisee is doing that is observable by supervisor. What skill levels are being demonstrated and how well counseling interventions are delivered.
How the supervisee understands what is occurring in the session, identifies patterns, or chooses interventions, all of which are covert processes
How the supervisee interfaces a personal style with counseling st the same time that he or she attempts to keep counseling uncontaminated by personal issues and countertransference responses.
What are Foci, and
why do we need them?
What roles do supervisor's play? Once you've got your focus, you need to figure out which one of 3 hats your supervisees will need...
You need the teacher role in order to instruct or advise your
supervisees in a more hands on way.
When in your experience has your supervisor taken on the
What kind of supervisees need the
The counselor role helps the supervisee emotionally process and understand themselves and their clients in a session.
How supportive is the counseling role compared to a teacher?
What is the difference between a counseler and a supervisor assuming a counseling role?
A Supervisor fits the consulting role
when they give resources or refer supervisees.
What kind of supervisees do you think would this work best with? When would this be less effective?
The discrimination model is eclectic - it allows flexibility in the actions between supervisor and supervisee
It has been used in other settings that require supervision - such as supervision for medical doctors.
It is one of the most researched models- and it is a solid evidenced based model
What do you like about
This model does not cover client care or cover the role of evaluator or monitor.
In studies, the consulting role isn't very prominent.
What are the problems that you have with this model?
Lets get ready to Apply Foci and Roles!
For each demonstration, you have to correctly
guess the foci and the role to get credit (and candy)! It may seem simple, but sometimes these are tricky!
How the supervisee interfaces a personal style with therapy at the same time that he or she attempts to keep therapy uncontaminated by personal issues and countertransference responses.
(Bernard, J.M. & Goodyear, R.K., 2009)
(Arthur, M.E. & Bernard, J.M., 2012; Bernard, J.M. & Gooyear R.K., 2009)
Intervention, Personalization Conceptualization
Teacher, Counselor, or Consultant
(Bernard, J.M. & Goodyear, R.K., 2009)