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Transcript of Interpreting Mashing-Up
"We owe it to our field and our students to study the art of our times and to begin with probing questions and far-reaching goals. What do our students need to know to understand the art of many cultures, from the past and the 21st century? Today, what knowledge do students need to stimulate and increase their creative powers?" (Gude, 2004, p. 8).
By Laurel Kissinger
Form + Theme + Context: Balancing Considerations
for Meaningful Art Learning
"Today's students need visual literacy skills and knowledge that enable them to encode concepts as well as decode the meaning of society's images, ideas, and media of the past as well as our increasingly complex visual world" (Sandell, 2006, p. 33).
Based on Renee Sandell's
Form, Theme, and Context
theory, a project such as Mashing-Up would be an influential addition to an art curriculum. By graphing this project based on Sandell's theory, I have come to this conclusion. Making connections between advertisements that we see every day and a contemporary artist's artwork can create a meaningful project. Mashing-Up relates to the students' lives. By viewing and using advertisements from today's society to create art, Mashing-Up creates discussion about controversial topics in our society, such as race, gender, politics, etc. This project has personal, social, cultural, historical, and artistic significance. Graphing this potential lesson plan using Renee Sandell's outline has aided in my decision of what I would like the students to learn and take from this lesson.
process of critical response, students perceive, interpret, and finally judge ideas connected to visual imagery and structures, past and present. Through the
process of creative expression, students generate artistic ideas that they elaborate, refine, and finally shape into meaningful visual imagery and structures" (Sandell, 2006, p. 33).
Let us begin by watching my original response to the project.
Through creating this video, I found that the Coca Cola advertisements and Jessica Stockholder explore a similar theme,
I was able to
my definition of space. I began to define outer space, imaginary space, physical space, the
of space, and the
I found that there can be a strong
between advertisements and contemporary art.
I saw that further examination of today's advertisements and contemporary art could lead to
the connection art has with our society. I began to see the curricular
What Did I Learn?
Postmodern Principles: In Search of a 21st Century Art Education
8 Art Making Principles
How does Mashing-Up Relate?
"For the students, recycling imagery felt comfortable and commonplace"
(Gude, 2004, p. 9).
Interaction of Text & Image
Appropriation is the practice of creating new work by taking a preexisting image from another source— history books, advertisements, the media—and transforming or combining it with new ones.
Mashing-Up combines the advertisements found in magazines or on TV and the work of a contemporary artist. It is related to appropriation in this way. It "recycles" imagery to create new meaning.
"The term juxtaposition is useful in helping students discuss the familiar shocks of contemporary life in which images and objects from various realms and sensibilities come together as intentional clashes or random happenings"
(Gude, 2004, p. 9).
Juxtaposition is the act of placing two things side by side in order to create a contrasting effect which creates new meaning.
Mashing-Up uses juxtaposition because it involves combining two different mediums, advertisements and contemporary art, to create a new meaning.
"Positioning a familiar image in relationship to pictures, symbols, or texts with which it is not usually associated generates meaning in an artwork" (
Gude, 2004, p. 10).
Advertisements are something that we see everyday. We are constantly being exposed to them. When students compare advertisements to contemporary art, which are not normally associated with contemporary art, they can create new meaning in their artwork.
"Students who make and value art in the 21st century must learn not to demand a literal match of verbal and visual signifiers, but rather to explore disjuncture between these modes as a source of meaning and pleasure"
(Gude, 2004, p. 10)
The interaction of text and image could come into play in Mashing-Up. In a collage or a video, use of text is normal. The students could be inspired to use text that does not describe the work, yet creates meaning.
"As images become cheap and plentiful, they are no longer treated as precious, but instead are often literally piled on top of each other. Layered imagery evoking the complexity of the unconscious mind is a familiar strategy in Surrealist art and of early experimental approaches to photography"
(Gude, 2004, p. 10).
Mashing-Up is associated with layering because the art forms of collage and video greatly involve the principle. Images are placed on one another in a collage. In my video response to this assignment, I layered the audio of Coca Cola ads on top of the artwork of Jessica Stockholder.
Through comparing Olivia Gude's principles to this Mashing-Up Project, I became more certain that the project will be beneficial to students. The project has a strong relationship with layering, juxtaposition, and appropriation. Knowledge of these terms could increase student's ability to "stimulate and increase their creative powers" (Gude, 2004, p. 8). Having this knowledge and these skills could give students the ability to participate in cultural and social conversations.
A Case for an Art Education of Everyday
"I argue that there exists a powerful synergy of technological, economic, and social dynamics driving the proliferation of everyday aesthetic experiences and, moreover, the significance of this synergy to cultural life is set to increase. I make the assumption that art education cannot ignore these driving dynamics because they are delivering a revolution in cultural experience that sidelines, even further than today, the role of fine art in the lives of our students" (Duncum, 1999, p. 296).
Duncum's Point of View
Introduce children to
thinking and communicating about the world through art
is our mission. (p. 296)
More often than not learning is unconscious. We learn through repetition.
Learning about ourselves and the world is done through the everyday
rather than special art experiences. Lessons of the everyday often go unrecognized as lessons. (p. 297)
"With the visual turn that culture has now taken it seems no exaggeration to say
our lives are embedded in visual aesthetics sites
and that we live within the spaces provided by them" (Duncum, 1999, p. 298).
The significance of TV is found in its ubiquity. It is completely integrated with our lives. (p. 298)
Effects of TV as a backdrop to daily life?
are transmitted unconsciously. It influences our
. (p. 299)
The more integrated something is in our lives, the more power it has to inform and form our minds. (p. 299)
The importance of everyday aesthetics was caused by new technologies, economic need, and social developments. (p. 300)
We should be reflective about our own use of everyday aesthetics. We should create a dialogue with our students about everyday cultural experiences. We can
learn along with and from our students
understand everyday aesthetics. (p. 307)
Art educators need to expand children's understanding about cultural production. (p. 308)
In conclusion, art education needs to incorporate the ideas of the everyday into theory and practice. "Our field would thereby not only survive as a source of
about a world that is set to continue undergoing massive cultural changes but make a
major contribution to its development
" (Duncum, 1999, p. 309).
"Students need to develop a critical perspective toward the values inherent in everyday aesthetic sites. They need to see how everyday imagery contributes to social movements, economic interests, and political agendas"
(Duncum, 1999, p. 308).
Magazine and television advertisements are a part of our everyday experiences. The inclusion of these ideas within the Mashing-Up project will allow students to think about how everyday imagery contributes to social movements, economic interests, and political agendas. Once we point out something that is integrated in our lives, something that we never think about, we can begin to understand its significance. I believe the Mashing-Up project will inspire this conversation and will allow the teacher to learn along with and from their students. Mashing-Up involves the everyday, as well as fine art. It will allow students to compare the two and make meaningful connections. Paul Duncum expressed art educators' argument that art has a significant impact on most students' lives, but was unable to provide research that demonstrates that the exposure to art has any long-term effects on students' lifestyles as adults (p. 299). He went on to argue that the everyday has more of an impact on their lives than art. What would happen if a project combined the aspects of the everyday with fine art? What if that project literally 'mashes up' everyday aesthetics (TV and magazine ads) and contemporary art or artists. The outcome of this project is promising. The students could come to conclusions that signify art as an aspect of our everyday lives. The everyday is something that everyone has knowledge about. By discussing everyday life experiences in an art curriculum, we could create an interest driven art classroom.
Looking at Mashing-Up through Olivia Gude's
theory allowed me to see the benefits that this project could have in an art curriculum. The project has a strong relationship with layering, juxtaposition, and appropriation. Knowledge of these terms could increase students' ability to "stimulate and increase their creative powers" (Gude, 2004, p. 8). Having this knowledge and these skills could give students the ability to participate in cultural and social conversations.
The integration of television and magazine advertisements in our everyday lives influences our thought, feelings, and actions. Art is thought, by some people, to not have a powerful impact on students' lives as the everyday does. After reading Paul Duncum's article on everyday aesthetic experiences, I was able to ask questions of Mashing-Up that could create an interesting discussion. What would happen if a project combined the aspects of the everyday with fine art? What if that project literally 'mashes up' everyday aesthetics (TV and magazine ads) and contemporary art or artists. The students could come to conclusions that signify art as an aspect of our everyday lives.
Based on Renee Sandell's
Form, Theme, and Context
theory, I found that Mashing-Up could create discussion about controversial topics in our society, such as race, gender, and politics. The project has personal, social, cultural, historical, and artistic significance. Using Renee Sandell's outline brought me to these conclusions about the Mashing-Up project. I would use this outline to create lessons in my future as an art educator, as it allows one to organize and realize what they truly want their students to learn from their lesson.
The Original Project Guidelines:
In this assignment, students will create a visual mash-up inspired by the work of their artist and elements from at least two magazine or television advertisements that features similar visual, thematic, or conceptual references. The form of the mash-up will be determined by the each student and must be accompanied by an artist’s statement of 1,000 to 1,500 words based on the following questions: 1) What do you see?, 2) What does it mean?, and 3) How do you know? (Barrett). Students must provide documentation/examples of the source(s) of their mash-up. Student participation in all activities related to this assignment will contribute to the overall assessment and evaluation.
Duncum, P. (1999). A case for an art education of everyday aesthetic experiences.
Studies in Art Education
, 40(4), 295-311. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1320551
Gude, O. (2004). Postmodern principles: in search of a 21st century art education.
, 57(1), 6-14. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3194078
Sandell, R. (2006). Form + theme + context: balancing considerations for meaningful art learning.
, 59(1), 33-37. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27696122
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Art Education 323: Pennsylvania State University