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Methodology Year III - Part 1

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Robert Oliwa

on 25 October 2016

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Transcript of Methodology Year III - Part 1

APPROACH
Methodology Year III
Part 1

Course Requirements
- Assignments
according to the guidelines
and by the deadline specified
- Attendance
according to general regulations
- Overall Participation in the Course
Marks:

very good - 5
plus good - +4
good - 4
plus fair- +3
fair - 3
fail - 2
Bibliography:
- Larsen-Freeman, D. 2000.Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP
- Harmer, J. 1998. How to Teach English. London: Longman
- Richard, J., Rogers, T. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP
- Komorowska, H. 2001. Metodyka nauczania języków obcych. Warszawa: Fraszka Edukacyjna
Bibliography:

- Heaton,J.B. 1995. Writing English Language Tests.London: Longman
- Madsen, H.S. 1983. Techniques in Testing. Oxford: OUP
- Komorowska, H. 2002. Sprawdzanie umiejętności w nauce języka obcego. Warszawa: Fraszka Edukacyjna
- Halliwell, S. 1992. Teaching English in thePrimary Classroom. London and New York: Longman
- Brewster, J., Ellis, G., Giriard, D., 1992. The Primary English Teacher`s Guide. Penguin books
- Brumfit,Ch., Moon, J., Tongue, R., (Eds.) 1995. Teaching English to Children: From Practice to Principle. Longman
- Pamuła, M., 2003. Metodyka nauczania języków obcych w kształceniu zintegrowanym. Warszawa: Fraszka
Edukacyjna
- Brown, H.D.,2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching.San Francisco State University: Longman.
- Karta Nauczyciela.;Rozporządzenie Ministra Edukacji i Sportu w sprawie uzyskiwania stopni awansu
zawodowego przez nauczycieli; Ustawa o systemie oświaty.
BRIEF HISTORY
LATIN (GREEK)

model for foreign language study
grammar rules and rhetoric
translation
writing sample sentences


16 - 19 century
18 century - modern languages were introduced
french
english
italian
spanish
... however they followed the pattern Latin was taught.

teaching was focused around grammar parts
oral work reduced to minimum
Principal

characteristics
:
the main goal of studying a language is to read literature
reading and writing were the two primary skills
vocabulary was based on the reading texts and learning by memorizing bilingual lists of words
sentence was the most important part of the teaching practice
accuracy was the aim of the teaching process
grammar was taught deductively
L1 was the language of instruction
GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD

1840s - 1940s

tedious process of memorizing long lists of grammar rules and vocabulary lists
The Reform Movement
followed the ideas of Marcel, Prentergast, Gouin - child observation
Sweet, Viëtor, Passy new reformers
Linguistics revitalized
International Phonetic Association
International Phonetic Alphabet
IPA emphasized:
inductive study of grammar
conversation text for understanding
good pronunciation habits
study of spoken language
avoidance of the mother tongue
The Practical Study of Languages (1899)

Careful selection of what is to be taught.
Imposing limits on what is to be taught.
Four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Grading materials from simple to complex.
General considerations of the Reform Movement (Sweet, Viëtor, Passy).
The spoken language is primary.
Include phonetics in teaching and teachers.
Learners should hear the lang first, before seeing it in written form.
Sentences should be taught in meaningful contexts.
Grammar should be taught inductively.
Avoid translation. Use mother tongue to clarify.
Most important 19 century innovations:
Increasing demand for oral proficiency in foreign languages as Europeans travelled.
Marcel (1793-1896): child language learning. Reading
Prendergast (1806-1886): Children’s use of situational cues to interpret utterances and memorized phrases and “routines” in speaking. First structural syllabus.
Gouin (1831-1896): Children language. Use of gestures and actions.
The Direct Method (until 1920’s)
Sauveur (1826-1907) in Europe; Berlitz in the USA: Berlitz Method (commercial lang schools):
Classroom instruction in target language
Learning based on everyday vocabulary & sentences
Small and intensive classes
Oral communication skills in graded progression. Communicative exchanges between student-teacher
Grammar taught inductively
Use of demonstration, objects and pictures in class
Principles of the Berlitz school
Never translate: demonstrate.
Never explain: act.
Never make a speech: ask questions.
Never imitate mistakes: correct.
Never speak with single words: use sentences.
Never use the book: use your lesson plan.
Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student.
Never speak too slowly: speak normally.
Never speak too quickly/loudly: speak naturally.
Never be impatient: take it easy.
Vital concepts addressed at the time and later
- METHOD
- approach
- design
- procedure
approach
design
procedure
Richards&Rogers
Approach is a theory of language and of language learning, assumptions and believes.
Design is a definition of linguistic content, a specification for the selection and organization of content, and a description of the role of teacher, learner, and teaching materials
Procedure is concerned with techniques and practices in a method
All language teaching methods based on a theory of language and beliefs or theories about how language is learned.

There are three different theoretical views of language which underlie popular teaching methods:
Structural
Functional
Interactional
DESIGN
Content Choice and Organization Within the Instructional System: The Syllabus.
Use of Content in the Instructional System: Learners, Teachers, and Materials.
Learner Roles.
Teacher Roles.
Role of Instructional Materials.
PROCEDURE
the focus is on the actual moment-to-moment techniques, practices, and activities that operate in teaching and learning a language according to a particular method
METHODS
1. TRADITIONAL METHOD (GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD)
2. DIRECT METHOD

3. AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD - Diana
4. COMMUNICATIVE METHOD - Magda
7. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE - Weronika
8. SUGGESTOPEDIA - Paulina
9. TASK-BASED LEARNING - Karolina
10. CONTENT-BASED LEARNING -
11. MULTIMEDIA/CALL METHODS -
12. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES METHODS - Iza
13. IMMERSION METHOD - Iza
APPROACHES
GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION APROACH
ORAL APPROACH
STRUCTURAL APPROACH
AUDIO-LINGUAL APPROACH
COGNITIVE APPROACH
COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
NATURAL APPROACH
HUMANISTIC APPROACH
Prepare a 10 minute talk on one of the approaches - highlight its strengths and weaknesses
TASK
Prepare a 10 minute talk on one of the teaching methods - discuss its
approach
design
procedure
Theory of Language
Language is identified with speech
Basic elements in a language are -ruled-governed
Emphasis is on a close relationship between structure context and situation
Primary importance is attached to meaning context and situation
Theory of Learning
Behaviorist habit formation theory
Language learning in a classroom differs form language learning in real life
Classroom language teaching should follow naturalistic principles of language learning
Theory of language
Structural point of view.
Grammatical units involving little or no spoken communication and listening.

Theory of learning:
GTM as a process-oriented theory,
Language learning mainly as a habit formation
Constant repetition and memorization of endless lists of grammar rules and vocabulary in order to produce perfect translation.
Grammar taught deductively
Theory of language
A system of structurally related elements for the transmission of meaning. These elements are usually described as
- phonological units (phonemes)
- grammatical units (phrases, clauses, sentences)
- grammatical operations (adding, shifting, joining or transforming elements)
- lexical items (function words and structure words)
Theory of learning
select a representative sample of problems,
identify a solution rule for each problem,
convert each solution rule into a higher order problem whose solutions is that rule,
identify a higher order solution rule for solving the new problems,
eliminate redundant solution rules from the rule set (i.e., those which can be derived from other rules),
Notice that steps 3 and 4 are essentially the same as steps 1 and 2, and continue the process iteratively with each newly-identified set of solution rules. The result of repeatedly identifying higher order rules, and eliminating redundant rules, is a succession of rule sets, each consisting of rules which are simpler individually but collectively more powerful than the ones before.
Theory of language
A system of structurally related elements for the transmission of meaning. These elements are usually described as
- phonological units (phonemes)
- grammatical units (phrases, clauses, sentences)
- grammatical operations (adding, shifting, joining or transforming elements)
- lexical items (function words and structure words)
Theory of learning
Behaviorism, including the following principles:
language learning is habit-formation
mistakes are bad and should be avoided, as they make bad habits
language skills are learned more effectively if they are presented orally first, then in written form
analogy is a better foundation for language learning than analysis
the meanings of words can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context

The theory of language
the concepts behind language i.e. traditional grammar.
language as an operation - sets of communicative functions
The theory of learning
A variety of activities practiced in new situations will allow assimilation of what has already been learnt or partly learnt.
It will also create further situations for which existing language resources are inadequate and must accordingly be modified or extended - "accommodation".
This ensures an awareness and a continuing supply of learning goals as well as aiding the motivation of the learner.
Crucial role of mistakes
Theory of language
The target of language learning is to learn to express communication functions and categories of meaning
Theory of learning:
activities that involve real communication promote learning
activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning
language that is meaningful to the learner promotes learning


The theory of language
The Communicative view of language is the view behind the Natural Approach. Particular emphasis is laid on language as a set of messages that can be understood.

The theory of learning

Language acquisition (an unconscious process developed through using language meaningfully) is different from language learning (consciously learning or discovering rules about a language) and language acquisition is the only way competence in a second language occurs. (The acquisition/learning hypothesis)
Conscious learning operates only as a monitor or editor that checks or repairs the output of what has been acquired. (The monitor hypothesis)
Grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order and it does little good to try to learn them in another order.(The natural order hypothesis).
People acquire language best from messages that are just slightly beyond their current competence. (The input hypothesis)
The learner's emotional state can act as a filter that impedes or blocks input necessary to acquisition. (The affective filter hypothesis)
The theory of language
structure-based approach to language


The theory of learning
priority given to vocabulary and lexical phrases
building blocks of communicative competence
COLLECTION OF APPROACHES
1. What were the two first languages ever taught?
2. What techniques were used to teach them?
3. What were the first modern languages introduced
and how were they taught?
4. Characterize Grammar Translation Method
6. Discuss the most important 19 th century innovations.
7. What was IPA?
8. Discuss The Practical Study of Language by Sweet
9. Discuss the Reform Movement
10. Discuss the Direct Method
11. What is a method composed of?
12. What is approach in language teaching?
13. What is design in language teaching
14. What is procedure in language teaching
15. Discuss the theoretical views of language
Activity Types
Translation of literary passages.
Reading comprehension questions
Antonyms/ synonyms
Deductive application of grammatical rules
Fill in the blanks
Memorization (of grammar and vocabulary)
Use words in sentences
Composition writing
Full transcript