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# The Scientific Method

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## Natalie Howell

on 8 September 2015

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#### Transcript of The Scientific Method

Organized series of steps scientists use when conducting investigations.

Steps of the Scientific Method
Formulate Hypothesis
Create/Perform Experiment
Gather and Analyze Data
Draw Conclusions

Identify Problem/
Ex: One plant in my room is growing better than another. I wonder why?
Predict a possible answer to the problem or question.
Example: If sunlight exposure is greater, then plant growth will increase.

Hypothesis
An organized series of steps used to test hypothesis

Experiment
The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).
Include tables, graphs, and photographs.

Analyze Data

Observe results and record data
Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis.
Draw Conclusions
Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.
Think you can name all six steps?

Grandma explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar.

John wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf?

Research
He comes up with a hypothesis.
Formulate a Hypothesis
An educated guess (testable prediction)
Hypothesis
Most often written in an "If...., then...." format
Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables?

Independent Variable

what happens as a result of the independent variable. (data)
Dependent Variable
John comes up with a procedure and list of needed materials.
Experiment
Can you think of some controls for this experiment?

They might include:
Other ingredients to the bread recipe, oven used, rise time, brand of ingredients, cooking time, type of pan used, air temperature and humidity where the bread was rising, oven temperature, age of the yeast…

Control Variables
Size of Bread Loaf (cm )
Trials

Control group

Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm
John finds that 70g. of sugar produces the largest loaf.
His hypothesis is accepted.

Conclusion

Results
Hypothesis
An educated guess based on research and observation
Conclusion
A statement that
rejects or accepts
the hypothesis based on the data from the experiment.
Example
Inference - a conclusion formed from available evidence
Your hypothesis is the inference you are testing.
Scientific theory
An attempt to
EXPLAIN
a pattern observed repeatedly in the natural world.
Scientific law
A
rule
that
DESCRIBES
a pattern in the natural world
Tries to say "why?"
Only tells "what"
It is the RESULT OF THE CHANGE.
Practice
If salt is added to water, then it will boil faster.
What is the independent variable? The dependent variable?
Communicate Results
Graphed on x-axis (horizontal)
Variable that is CHANGED by experimenter.
The words following "if" in hypothesis are the independent variable
Graphed on y-axis (vertical)
Further Research?
Make recommendations for further study.
How can I improve my procedure?
What is the independent variable?
Can only be
ONE
!
Control
Variables in experiment that
do not
change
Standard for comparison
What is the dependent variable?
3
3
Ex. If I water the plant more often, then it will grow faster.
Science
Uses observation and investigation to gain knowledge about the natural world.
Then...?
Quantitative data
numerical (ex. 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, etc.)
objective - measurable
Qualitative data
descriptive (ex. blue, shiny, etc.)
subjective - affected by opinion or experiences
it is what is measured
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