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The Scientific Method
Transcript of The Scientific Method
Organized series of steps scientists use when conducting investigations.
Identify the Problem/Ask a Question
Steps of the Scientific Method
Gather and Analyze Data
Make observations and ask questions.
Ex: One plant in my room is growing better than another. I wonder why?
Predict a possible answer to the problem or question.
Example: If sunlight exposure is greater, then plant growth will increase.
An organized series of steps used to test hypothesis
The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).
Include tables, graphs, and photographs.
Observe results and record data
Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis.
Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.
Think you can name all six steps?
John watches his grandmother bake bread. He asks his grandmother what makes the bread rise.
Ask a Question
Grandma explains that yeast releases a gas as it feeds on sugar.
John wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf?
He comes up with a hypothesis.
Formulate a Hypothesis
An educated guess (testable prediction)
Most often written in an "If...., then...." format
Do you know the difference between the independent and dependent variables?
what happens as a result of the independent variable. (data)
John comes up with a procedure and list of needed materials.
Can you think of some controls for this experiment?
They might include:
Other ingredients to the bread recipe, oven used, rise time, brand of ingredients, cooking time, type of pan used, air temperature and humidity where the bread was rising, oven temperature, age of the yeast…
Size of Bread Loaf (cm )
Size of Baked Bread (LxWxH) cm
John finds that 70g. of sugar produces the largest loaf.
His hypothesis is accepted.
An educated guess based on research and observation
A statement that
rejects or accepts
the hypothesis based on the data from the experiment.
Inference - a conclusion formed from available evidence
Your hypothesis is the inference you are testing.
An attempt to
a pattern observed repeatedly in the natural world.
a pattern in the natural world
Tries to say "why?"
Only tells "what"
It is the RESULT OF THE CHANGE.
If salt is added to water, then it will boil faster.
What is the independent variable? The dependent variable?
Graphed on x-axis (horizontal)
Variable that is CHANGED by experimenter.
The words following "if" in hypothesis are the independent variable
Graphed on y-axis (vertical)
Make recommendations for further study.
How can I improve my procedure?
What is the independent variable?
Can only be
Variables in experiment that
Standard for comparison
What is the dependent variable?
“If more sugar is added, then the bread will rise higher.”
Ex. If I water the plant more often, then it will grow faster.
Uses observation and investigation to gain knowledge about the natural world.
numerical (ex. 1cm, 2cm, 3cm, etc.)
objective - measurable
descriptive (ex. blue, shiny, etc.)
subjective - affected by opinion or experiences
it is what is measured