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najlaa aljuhany

on 11 May 2015

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Transcript of Leadership

Motivating Change within Organizations

How Chris gain Lynn’s support?
There Are Three Tactics

Chris could change organizational architecture so Lynn will get her benefit from this proposal. She will support it.
Chris could change his proposal details so she will be more likely to support it.
Chris could be able to market his proposal to Lynn by making her more convenience, and she will not lose her benefits. She will support it.
Changing Organizational Architecture
There are two general changes which can help Chris to gain support for his proposal in his organizational architecture:
He can give more the decision rights to the individuals who are more likely to support his proposal, and reduce the decision rights of the individuals who is less likely to support the same proposal.
He can change the performance-evaluation and reward systems; thus the benefits from this proposal will return to more employees. So they would support the new program.
* Kearns implemented both types of changes in architecture at Xerox.
Lynn get her salary and bonus based on product’s quality instead of the amount of sales in her department.
Receiving the approval of the CEO for Chris proposal does not mean it will be implemented successfully.
This problem can be solved by making changes in the architecture to reduce the anticipated problems. Also, Chris could make additional changes in the performance-evaluation and reward systems.
Proposal Design
There are three issues: flexibility, commitment, and distributional consequences.
Maintaining flexibility, employees are more likely to support the proposal within lower risk, and higher payoffs.
Commitment, Kearns made the proposal very clear in order to make it committed by the employees.
Distributional consequences, if the proposal will reduce Lynn’s benefits than another department manager, Chris can modify the original proposal to get the support from both managers.

Marketing a Proposal
The sponsor of the proposal can make the employees more convenience to support the proposal by letting them know about all the credible information.
Careful Analysis and Groundwork, Chris should take time to explain his analysis to key employees to discuss proposal and answer their questions. ( prepare appropriate speech, write article).
Relying on Reputation, employees will be more likely to support the proposal provider if he has two things: past success is an indicator of analytical and organizational skills, proposal provider has strong incentives in order to maintain his established reputation. They are trust him.
Emphasizing a Crisis, this strategy overcomes the normal performance for the status quo, and increases the awareness among employees to change because the organization is going to fail.
The Effect of Changes in The Performance-Evaluation and Reward Systems
Xerox Corporation
In 1982, David Kearns was appointed CEO of Xerox Corporation.
It was the leading producer of copy machines in the world At that time.
Between 1976 and 1982.
Leadership definition
“leading others along a way, guiding.”
The two important characteristics of good leadership.
To quote John Gardner, “The two tasks at the heart of the popular notion of leadership are goal setting and motivating.”
Since these tasks are performed by people throughout the organization.
Vision Sitting
simply mean a course of action for the firm.
According to Kearns, he was among the first people to envision Xerox as a quality-based organization
a lower-level employee or a person outside the firm can make a vision
formulating a vision has to be assembled by combining the knowledge of numerous individuals.
It is this view that has prompted much of the current literature on the role of managers in empowering employees to “unleash their untapped creativity.”
Decision Making within Firms
Incentive problems and Organizational Politics:
Academic discussions often treat decision making as a purely intellectual exercise.
The decision process is much more complicated.
Decision making within firms often resembles decision making in political settings such as government.
Understanding Attitudes Toward Change
Chris think that his proposal will not be successful unless all his managers department support his quality program.
Lynn is a department manager who reports to Chris.
She eager to increase her utility instead of increasing the firm’s value. So she prefer to refuse supporting Chris proposal.
She will try to fail her part during her implementation.

Although an appropriate vision is important.
Three motivation skill
- Leadership is the process of persuasion
- Define leadership as leaders inducing followers
- The great leader needs, the capacity to achieve.
Some people argue that leaders motivate people to follow visions through personal charisma, style, and inspiration. Under this view, the bonds between leader and follower are more emotional than rational.

Organizational Power
Sources of Power
3- Control of Information
4- Friends and Allies
Some power comes from the formal position within the organization.
Chris can count on some support from his employees. But he might be less supportive of raises or promotions; he might even fire them.
Power attached to a formal position is not without limits.
1- Formal Authority
2- Control of Budgets and Resources
Control resources, budget authority.
Example: copy machines.
Control over these resources is a source of power.
Individuals can increase their organizational power by gaining control over key resources.
3- Control of Information
A particularly important resource in most organizations is information.
Not all employees have equal access to information.
People with information can trade information for support.
Managers expect that their friends will provide support.
Employees make a point of doing favors for other individuals within the firm to get support in the future.
4- Friends and Allies
Tying the Proposal to Another Initiative
It is possible to free-ride on the power of other people in the firm to gain support for a proposal.
Our example, BCT’s CEO has stressed the importance of product quality to the media.
Chris might claim that his proposal is an integral part of the CEO’s vision for the company.
Coalitions and Logrolling
A manager sometimes can increase power through logrolling.
A logroll consists of a coalition of individuals agree to support the various requests.
In our example, Chris might form a logroll with other general managers in the company to support his proposal. He can agree to support proposals by these managers to expand their divisions if they back his quality proposal.
These types of agreements virtually always take the form of implicit promises or understandings rather than formal contracts.
Coalition Obstacles
Two potential problems
: Major decisions in firms do not occur simultaneously.
identifying potential candidates for the logroll is not always easy. There is likely to be asymmetric information about how the proposal affects other people’s welfare.
This type of deal making, or “horse trading,” is common within organizations.
Proposal Detail and Logrolling
Reduce problems by being specific about what is expected of each key employee.

After the program is under way:
: it limits the ability of employees to act on their specific knowledge in the
implementation phase

: being overly specific in the
ratification phase
can make it more to assemble an effective coalition.

Logrolling often requires that terms of the proposal be somewhat vague to limit potential conflicts.
The Use of Symbols
The company adopt formal creeds and statements to emphasize the manager’s basic vision for the company.
symbols is aspect of corporate culture that performs a potentially important communication function; the symbols inform employees about what is valued in the company.
symbols are unlikely to be effective in motivating employees to take particular actions unless reinforced by the firm’s performance-evaluation and reward systems.
David Kearns came to realize this and ultimately had to change the reward system at Xerox before he could implement his quality program successfully.
Some proposal sponsors have more personal power than others to affect the payoffs received by other employees.
To be effective, it is important for managers to understand the sources of this power and how to acquire it.

Is Organizational Power Bad?
Power and politics frequently connote negative images to many people.
Gain power involve costs.
Without political skills and power, leaders might fail to implement value-increasing plans and the organization would suffer immensely.
In summary, power and political skills are, in and of themselves, neither good nor bad.
Xerox now
1- Formal Authority
2- Control of Budgets and Resources
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