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Strategies to Foster Fluency in Content Areas

This presentation highlights five different instructional strategies that can be used to foster fluency in the content areas.

Megan Scherber

on 18 July 2014

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Transcript of Strategies to Foster Fluency in Content Areas

3 components of fluency:
* "Describes one's ability to read accurately, at an appropriate rate, using expression" (Miller, 2011, p.36).

* "Fluency includes three major components: rate, accuracy, and prosody" (Miller, 2011, p.36).

Deep fluency:
"The explicit awareness of one's own text processing, intrinsic motivation to practice, and autonomy (absolute fluency)" (Miller, 2011, p.38).

What is Fluency?
The Goals of Fluency Instruction:
1) Model Fluency
Instructional Strategies: Teacher Read Aloud and Generated Read Aloud

2) Guide Fluency
Instructional Strategies: Guided Fluency Instruction and Adapted Retrospective Miscue Analysis

3) Provide Practice for Fluency
Instructional Strategies: Repeated Reading and Wide, Independent Reading
Rasinski, Dr. T. (ND). Guided Fluency Instruction: Moving Students to

Scholastic Professional Paper
. Retrieved July 17, 2014 from


Why foster fluency?
* "Fluency is an essential component of literacy development because fluent readers have more cognitive space available to focus on building meaning from text" (Miller, 2011, p.36).

* "It is extremely important for content area teachers to give struggling adolescent readers ample instruction and time to develop fluency skills so they can direct their attention to the challenges of comprehending content area text" (Miller, 2011, p.37).
Created by Megan Scherber
for EEC 428 with Dr. Piowlski

Strategies to Foster Fluency in Content Areas
1) Rate:
Tells whether or
not a student can decode
words automatically,
recorded in words per

2) Accuracy:
Reading or
decoding the text without
making errors such as
omissions, leaving words
out, additions, adding
words, and miscues.

3) Prosody:
The intonation
and vocal stress in speech,
including expression and

Intonation: the rising or
falling of pitch of the voice,
placing stress on certain

Expression: using a correct
tone of voice based upon
grammatical symbols
within the text.

Phrasing: pauses and breaks that effect a reader's fluency
(Miller, 2011, p.36)
How can educators foster fluency?
"Fluency can best be fostered using strategies that combine all three sub-skills (rate, accuracy, and prosody) together and move students toward developing "deep fluency""(Miller, 2011, p.38).
*These goals are supported by the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model:
"Teachers model strategies for students and give opportunities for guided practice before students independently apply the strategy"
(Miller, 2011, p.39).
Instructional Strategy: Teacher Read Aloud
*A teacher read aloud is when a teacher reads to the class, modeling fluency, and it can be integrated into any subject area.

*A teacher read aloud can introduce and support lessons, chapters, and themes in the classroom.

4 suggestions for a read aloud:
Informational/Real World Texts, Traditional Grade Level Favorites, Poetry, and Easy/Picture Books

* A guest speaker, parent volunteer, school staff member, or fluent student may also perform a read aloud to help develop fluency in students.

* A read aloud should include pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading activities, where the teacher is interacting with the students.
"Researchers recommend that a Teacher Read Aloud be conducted often, using a wide variety of genres" (Miller, 2011, p.40).
"Teachers should understand that the read aloud strategy involves creating a time for oral reading on a consistent basis using selections that exceed student's independent reading level yet are at the correct listening level" (Marshall, 2012, para. 7).
Procedure for a Teacher Read Aloud:
1) Choose a text/passage to read that is above students' independent reading level and at the appropriate grade level

2) Pre-read the text to be read aloud while practicing prosody including, intonation, gesturing, and dialogue with character voices.

3) Activate and build the students background knowledge about the topic. Ex: Have students do an anticipation guide.

4) Read aloud to students with accuracy, appropriate rate, and prosody. Demonstrate word analysis strategies to students.

5) Ask students questions regarding fluency, encouraging reflection of the reading.

6) Allow students to read the text after the read aloud.
(Miller, 2011, p.41).
Why do a read aloud?
When teachers read aloud to their students they're helping them achieve the following:
*Learn what fluid and expressive reading sounds like
*Learn how to think aloud
*Make connections to real life experiences or other pieces of literature" (Marshall, 2012, para. 10).
Internet Resources for a Teacher Read Aloud
1) Marshall, P. (2012). The Read Aloud Component of Balanced Literacy Instruction.
K12 Reader.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.k12reader.com/the-read-aloud-component-of-balanced-literacy-instruction/.
This website provides educators with the importance of read alouds, read aloud teaching methods, strategies for pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading, as well as some points to help with read alouds.
2) Reading Rockets. (ND). Reading Aloud.
Reading Rockets.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.readingrockets.org/reading-topics/reading-aloud.
This website provides links to the research behind read alouds, a video on the importance of read alouds, links for teacher read alouds, parent read alouds, along with how read alouds provide for the use of comprehension strategies.
3) Burkins, J. (2014). Teacher Read-Aloud That Models Reading for Deep Understanding.
. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/teacher-read-aloud-that-30799.html.
Significant amounts of research behind read alouds are provided on this website. It also provides professional development to educators with the steps to implementing a read aloud, strategy guides, and lesson plans examples using a read aloud with instruction.
4) Ada, A. (2014). Teaching Strategies: Read Aloud.
Annenberg Learner.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.learner.org/workshops/tml/workshop7/teaching2.html.
This article discusses how recent research has shown that reading aloud benefits middle and secondary students as well as young children. It provides educators with tips and variations for teacher read alouds.
5) Wilhelm, J. (2014). How to Implement Read-Aloud Strategies in Your Class.
Scholastic Teachers.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/how-implement-read-aloud-strategies-your-class.
This article provides 11 printables including guidelines, checklists, and assessment tools to help educators get started with implementing the read aloud strategy in their classroom.
Read Aloud Video Example
This video demonstrates a middle school science teacher who uses read alouds and think alouds in her classroom.
Scilit13. (2013). Mini-Lecture #2 Read aloud Think aloud.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJ_ae40TgN44.
Instructional Strategy: Generated Read Aloud
* A generated read aloud can be used when a "live" read aloud isn't possible in order to model fluent reading and encourage readers to develop an auditory meta-cognitive awareness of fluency.

*Generated read alouds include: Audio CDs, Audio Recordings, and Scan/Read Software Systems.
Audio CDs:
Several content area textbooks provide audio CD read alouds to foster fluency and comprehension. These can be used for students to pre-read the next day lesson or review their notes at home.

2) Audio Recordings:

Audio texts or podcasts can be dowloaded to MP3 players and iPods. The Kindle 2 provides textbooks to be read aloud. These recordings are the 21st century of books-on-tape.

3) Scan/Read Software Systems:

These systems have the ability to read aloud printed text with "strategic fluency". Lines of text are highlighted as they are read aloud. These help students to reduce distractibility, read faster, and complete assignments in less time.
(Miller, 2011, p.42)
Why use Generated Read Alouds?
"With continued improved technology, audio recordings will likely become more and more popular for teachers to use as a read aloud and for students to access outside of school" (Miller, 2011, p.42).
Procedure for a Generated Read Aloud:
1) Choose a text at an appropriate level for students.

2) Listen to the text and make sure it models fluency well.

3) Activate and build background knowledge for students.

4) Play the read aloud for the students.

5) Ask students questions about the fluency of the read aloud.

6) Allow the students access to the read aloud passage after reading.
(Miller, 2011, p.42)
Internet Resources for a Generated Read Aloud
1) Biancarosa, G. (2012). Technology Tools to Support Reading in the Digital Age.
The Future of Children.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=78&articleid=577&sectionid=3990.

This research report analyzes studies on e-reading technology, including generated read alouds. It looks at the advantages and disadvantages to reading digital text aloud.
2) Barrett-Mynes, J. (2010). Supporting Struggling Readers.
Voices of Practitioners: Teacher Research in Early Childhood Education.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/Publications/Barrett-Mynes.pdf.
This research report recommends ways to support struggling readers through interactive read-alouds and graphic organizers. It discusses how to make the most of read alouds and provides a teacher observation rating scale to be used with read alouds.
3) Meehan, J. (ND). Generating Excitement for Reading in the Middle Grades: Start with Nonfiction Read-Alouds!.
Illinois Reading Council Journal.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://interactivereadalouds.pbworks.com/f/Generating+Excitement+in+the+Middle+Grades+-+Start+with+Non-fiction+Read-Alouds.pdf.
This journal entry highlights how read alouds from non-fiction texts in the upper grade levels can generate excitement for reading and learning amongst students.
4) Braun, P. (2009). The Effects of Reading Nonfiction Aloud on Vocabulary Acquisition of Middle-School Students.
National Louis University.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://digitalcommons.nl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=diss.
This research study analyzed vocabulary acquisition in eighth graders based on non-fiction read alouds. It includes five pages on read-alouds in the content areas.
5) Kelly, J. (ND). Audio Textbooks Help Students With Reading Problems Access Curriculum.
. Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.greatschools.org/special-education/legal-rights/944-audio-textbooks-help-students.gs.
This article explains how recorded books are beneficial to students with vision impairment or dyslexia, as well as students with reading disabilities.
Video Example: Generated Read Alouds
This video discusses how digital literacy brings choice into the classroom to allow middle and high school students to develop a passion for reading, making it more exciting and engaging.
Heinemann Publishing. (2010). Teaching Digital Literacy Skills for Middle and High School.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dyFwxKGyd988.
Instructional Strategy: Guided Fluency Development Instruction (GFDI)
* "Guided Fluency Development Instruction takes components of successful elementary research-based fluency programs and combines them to meet the demands of older students and content area text" (Miller, 2011, p.44).

* Examples of GFDI include: Shared book experiences, oral recitations lessons, fluency development lessons, and fluency-oriented reading instruction

* "The goal of Guided Fluency Development Instruction is to guide fluency within the meaningful context of content text reading" (Miller, 2011, p.44).
Why use Guided Fluency Development Instruction?
"Reading fluency, the ability to read accurately, at an appropriate rate, and with meaningful expression and phrasing has been shown to be associated with reading comprehension for students through the intermediate grades" (Rasinski, ND, para.1).

"Specific instructional methods for teaching fluency have been identified and employed with a high degree of success in classrooms and clinics" (Rasinski, ND, para.1).
Procedure for embedding fluency development within a content lesson:
1) Activate and build students' background knowledge of the text

2) Pre-teach the vocabulary

3) Read aloud the text passage
the students with fluency while scaffolding vocabulary instruction

4) Have a class discussion summarizing the text's purpose and main ideas

5) Fluently reread the text
the students using strategies such as choral reading, echo reading, or cloze reading (explained on next slide)

6) Model skimming and scanning for students

7) Have students reread the text with a group, partner, or independently

8) Provide students with corrective feedback on fluency
(Miller, 2011, p.45)
Strategies of GFDI:
* Choral Reading:
Read the text fluently and in unison with the students.

* Echo Reading:
Read aloud a small section of the text while students follow along; then have all the students echo the same passage in unison.

* Cloze Reading:
Read a section of the text aloud, purposefully omitting words and/or phrases. Students read the omitted parts aloud and in unison as the teacher pauses and waits to move on.
(Miller, 2011, p.45)
Internet Resources for Guided Fluency Development Instruction
1) Rasinski, Dr. T. (ND). Guided Fluency Instruction: Moving Students to Independence.
Scholastic Professional Paper.
Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/fluencyformula/pdfs/Guided_Fluency_Instruction.pdf.
Marshall, P. (2012). The Read Aloud Component of Balanced

Literacy Instruction.
K12 Reader.
Retrieved July 16, 2014 from


This professional paper discusses how guided fluency instruction moves students toward independent reading through modeling, assisted practice, and independent practice.
2) Texas Education Agency. (2011). Fluency: Instructional Guidelines and Student Activities.
Adolescent Literacy.
Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://www.adlit.org/article/3416/.
This website highlights activities that can increase fluency through guided fluency instruction including, student-adult reading, choral reading, and several more activities.
3) Virginia Department of Education. (2010). Reading First: A Guide to Fluency Instruction.
Reading First in Virginia: Professional Development.
Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/prof_dev/fluency/introduction.html.
This website provides professional development for educators with a guide to fluency instruction. The guide includes instructional activities to increase reading speed, activities to increase reading expression, and assessing fluency.
4) Kiehl, K. (2013). Fluency: Listening to Oral Reading During Guided Reading.
Middle School Teacher to Literacy Coach.
Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://middleschoolteachertoliteracycoach.blogspot.com/2013/01/fluency-listening-to-oral-reading.html.
This teacher discusses how she implements guided reading in her classroom. She also includes ideas to help build/improve fluency in students. There are also examples of anchor charts on her blog.
5) Brummitt-Yale, J. (2012). Reading Fluency and Instruction
. K12 Reader.
Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://www.k12reader.com/reading-fluency-and-instruction/.
This article highlights the best practices for helping students to develop reading fluency through guided oral reading, choral reading, readers' theatre, and modeling.
Video Example for Guided Fluency Development Instruction
Miller, M., & Veatch, N. (2011).
Literacy in Context: Choosing Instructional

Strategies to Teach Reading in Content Areas for Students in Grades 5-12.

Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
This video provides an example of a fluent guided reading lesson in a second grade classroom. Several of these strategies used can be implemented in the middle and secondary grades as well.
ISD833. (2012). Fluent Guided Reading. YouTube. Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R0hBek4KRZAA.
Instructional Strategy: Repeated Reading
* Repeated Reading is when students either practice rereading with a partner or independently. In partner repeated reading, students aren't giving corrective feedback at this time, as opposed to pair reading.

* Repeated Reading should occur after a teacher read aloud, a generated read aloud, or a guided fluency development instruction.

* A variation that can make repeated reading more engaging for students is Reader's Theatre, where students repeatedly practice reading a passage to later perform it as part of a play or skit.
"Research continues to document that repeated reading increases oral reading fluency" (Miller, 2011, p.49).

"Research has shown that classes using Reader's Theatre make significant gains in oral reading fluidity, expression, and vocabulary" (Miller, 2011, p.49).
Why use repeated reading?
Procedure for Repeated Reading:
1) Have students reread the text passage modeling word analysis and fluency strategies.

2) Circulate around the room to monitor the rereading.
(Miller, 2011, p.49)
Internet Resources for Repeated Reading
1) Reading Rockets. (2014). Timed Repeated Readings.
Reading Rockets.
Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/timed_repeated_readings.
This website discusses how repeated readings, under timed conditions, can increase students' reading speed, which can improve comprehension and fluency. It explains how to used timed repeated readings and how to differentiate instruction.
2) TeacherVision. (2014). Repeated Reading.
. Retrieved July 17, 2014 from https://www.teachervision.com/reading/teaching-methods/3789.html?page=1.
This article provides educators with a variety of repeated reading activities to improve reading skills. It also includes the research that backs up the strategy of repeated readings in pairs, groups, and independently.
3) Bemidji Area Schools. (2014). Fluency Intervention Strategy- Repeated Reading.
Bemidji Area Schools.
Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://www.bemidji.k12.mn.us/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Fluency-Repeated-Reading-Intervention.pdf.
This is an example of a fluency intervention strategy that can used with repeated reading to help students who are below benchmark for their grade level in reading,
4) Scholastic Professional Books. (ND). Lesson 9: Repeated Readings.
Building Fluency
. Retrieved July 17, 2014 from http://teacher.scholastic.com/reading/bestpractices/fluency/pdfs/building_fluency_repeatedreading.pdf.
Provided is a lesson plan using the repeated reading strategy, as well as a printable repeated reading chart.
5) ReadingResource. (2009). Repeated Reading Homework Log.
Reading Fluency Activities.
Retrieved July 17, 2014 from https://s3.amazonaws.com/readingresourcekatieuploads/FluencyHomeworkSheet.pdf.
This is a fluency progress chart that can be used with the repeated reading strategy in order for students to practice reading fluency. This chart can be used as a homework log at home.
Video Example for Repeated Reading
This video demonstrates the repeated reading method to increase oral reading fluency.
ReadingResource.net. (2009). Repeated Reading Method. YouTube. Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrrLJR7Zbq00.
Instructional Strategy: Wide, Independent Reading
* "Wide, independent reading is an essential practice that all teachers should use in conjunction with their content area instruction to build fluency and content knowledge" (Miller, 2011, p. 49).

* Reading software programs can be used in school districts to monitor independent reading of students.

*The goal is to develop a "love of reading" in students

* To promote independent reading, create a classroom library that is filled with content area books.

* "Appropriate texts to use for Wide, Independent Reading include those that the student is motivated to read, can connect to the content area they are studying, has the ability to decode and read the vocabulary words independently, can make use of the text structures, and will be given an opportunity to practice their prosody wile reading" (Miller, 2011, p. 50).
Why use wide, independent reading?
" Since it has been shown that reading independently gives students an opportunity to develop their fluency skills, it is no surprise that Wide, Independent Reading is an essential practice that all teachers should use in conjunction with their content area instruction to build fluency and content knowledge" (Miller, 2011, p.49).
"In order for students to gain proficiency in the varying sets of content area standards, students must read material that exposes them to a wide variety of content" (Miller, 2011, p.49).
"Wide, Independent Reading fosters students' reading rate, accuracy, and prosody" (Miller, 2011, p. 51).
Procedure for Implementing Independent Reading:
1) Students choose a book or article that aligns with content and interests.

2) Have students read a brief summary of the book or article. Skim and scan the content and features of the text. Rank the level of content using an Independent Reading Chart, which can be created by a teacher including content, word difficulty, prosody, text features, and support available.

3)Perform the Five Finger Test to determine the difficulty of the text.
The Five Finger Test:
1. Randomly choose a page filled with text to read aloud.
2. Begin reading, putting one finger up for every time you come to a word you don't know or struggle to read, while paying attention to prosody,
3. If ending with all five fingers up, the text is probably too difficult.
4. If ending with no fingers up, the text is probably too easy.
5. If ending with one or two fingers up, the text is probably a fit for you.

4) Have students rank the level of word difficulty, prosody, and the level of support available, and determine if the text is a good match for them.

5) If the majority of rankings fall under the "A Good Match" section on the ranking chart, then that student should read that text independently, but if it's too difficult or too simple, then the student should select a different text.
(Miller, 2011, p. 51).
Internet Resources for Independent Reading
1) Truby, D. (2014). 10 Questions About Independent Reading.
Scholastic Teachers.
Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/10-questions-about-independent-reading.
In this article, reading expert Jennifer Serravallo answers tough questions on how to make the most of independent reading time.
2) Marshall, P. (2012). Independent Reading- The Foundation of Lifelong Reading.
K12 Reader.
Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://www.k12reader.com/independent-reading-the-foundation-of-lifelong-reading/.
This article discusses why independent reading should be encouraged, how to incorporate it into the classroom, independent reading activities, and the benefits of independent reading.
3) Benchmark Education. (2014). Read About Best Practices in Independent Reading.
Benchmark Education
. Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://www.benchmarkeducation.com/best-practices-library/independent-reading.html.
This website provides information for educators on how to organize independent reading in the classroom, the teacher and student roles in independent reading, and how book talks and mini-lessons can be taken from independent reading.
4) Scholastic. (2014). The Teacher Store.
Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://shop.scholastic.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/SearchCmd?storeId=10751&N=4294605149+165+166+167&catalogId=10051.
This teacher store provided through Scholastic, includes a wide selection of classroom libraries that can be purchased and used to implement independent reading in the classroom for grades 6-8.
5) Gardner, T. (2014). Developing Reading Plans to Support Independent Reading.
Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://www.readwritethink.org/resources/resource-print.html?id=836.
This lesson plan on independent reading contains several resources that can be used with independent reading in grades 6-8 including, a graphic map, reading plan charts, a reading portfolio, and a reading log.
Video Example for Independent Reading
This video is all about independent reading, how to engage students, and why it's an important part of fluency development.
CravenCountySchools. (2013). Independent Reading (IR).
. Retrieved July 18, 2014 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IuNlt8QKsWEE.
**Internet resources and videos for each strategy are cited separately with each of the five strategies.**
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