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Commonplace Book Entry 2
Transcript of Commonplace Book Entry 2
understanding Criterion-Referenced Assessment Norm-Referenced Assessment Evaluation Teacher-Developed Assessment Instrument Traditional Assessment Authentic Assessment Informal Assessment Formal Assessment "Assessment that results from a teacher's spontaneous, day-to-day observations of how students perform in class" "Preplanned, systematic attempt to ascertain what students know and can do" "Assessment that focuses on measuring basic knowledge and skills in relative isolation from tasks typical of the outside world" "Assessment of students' knowledge and skills in a context similar to one in the outside world" "Assessment tool developed by an individual teacher for use in his or her own classroom" "Assessment instrument designed to determine what students know and can do relative to predetermined standards or criteria" "Assessment instrument that indicates how students perform relative to a peer group" Formative evaluation: conducted before or during instruction to facilitate instructional planning and enhance students' learning The selection of the correct type of assessment gives teachers a better of how well their students are the main learning objective. Kim Peraza
USC Rossier School of Education
EDUC 513A Section 27870
Professor Soo Park, Ph.D. Works Cited 1. Ormrod, J.E. (2010). 14: Classroom assessment strategies. Educational psychology: Developing learners (7th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
2. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Merrill Education/ASCD. Chapters 7, 8, 9 (pp. 146-226)
3. Images and video clips are from Google Images and YouTube. What is assessment? "Assessment is a process of observing a sample of a student's behavior and drawing inferences about the student's knowledge and abilities" (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). (Ormrod 2010). Summative evaluation: conducted after instruction to assess students' final achievement (Ormrod 2010). RSVP Reliability Standardization Validity Practicality The extent to which an assessment instrument or procedure yields consistent results for each student The extent to which assessment instruments and procedures are similar for all students The extent to which an assessment instrument or procedure measures what it's intended to measure & enables appropriate inferences to be made The extent to which an assessment instrument or procedure is easy and inexpensive to use Obviously this teacher from Ferris Bueller's day off did not informally assess his class well, affecting the student's learning (or lack of). Examples: * Watch for body language that may suggest student's feelings about the lesson.
* Identify what activities students voluntarily engage with.
* Ask questions and observe how much the class participates.
* See what questions they ask. "Assessment in which students provide written responses to written items" Paper-Pencil Assessment Thus, if the wrong type of assessment is chosen, students' learning is incorrectly identified and their potential understanding of the material becomes hindered, devolving into misunderstanding. "Assessment in which students demonstrate their knowledge and skills in a non-written fashion" Performance Assessment Pros Cons Offers teachers continuous effective feedback in a flexible method.
Allows to better understand motivational factors, social skills and work habits of students. Personal biases and expectations can affect the outcome, such as the halo or horns effect. Although informal assessment, can be a great assessment tool when used correctly, it could limit our insight of students because of our preset beliefs without self-reflection. Examples and Types Multiple-Choice
Essay Brief Response Task Extended Recognition Recall Pros Cons Can test a range of subjects in a small amount of time and with a high level of grading consistency. The data may not always be very accurate (e.g., students can guess and still get the correct answer).
ELs and minorities tend to struggle with this particular format. Although paper-pencil assessment is very consistent, because of this black and white grading style, it should only be used when necessary. Pros Cons Helpful in assessing students' higher level of cognitive level such as critical thinking.
Encourages creativity and can be more motivating .
Students can be exposed to new experiences through dynamic assessment and Vygotsky's zone of proximal development. Less practical than other assessments.
Performances are not consistent, making assessing them difficult.
Group work can be challenging and often not equally divided among students. Examples * Role-playing as a fictional character
* Playing a musical instrument
* Creating an art piece Despite performance assessment encouraging creativity, critical thinking and problem solving at a high cognitive level, it is best used with another type of assessment due to its lack of practicality. There are three necessary attributes: 1. Observing behavior 2. A sample of behavior 3. Drawing inferences from observations Standardized Testing "Test developed by test construction experts and published for use in many different schools and classrooms" Pros Cons Offers teachers continuous effective feedback in a flexible method.
Allows to better understand motivational factors, social skills and work habits of students. These type of assessments aren't always fair for minority students and ELs (English Learners). An example of Paper-Pencil assessment Pros Cons Results show both what students have learned, along with the a comparison to the scores of others (typically within the same grade level or age). The results are not specific, but show how they compare to other students in a general sense.
Could create an uncomfortable environment which would negatively effect learning outcome. Pros Cons Closely tied to the curriculum and relevant knowledge and skills needed in the learning objective.
This type is directly aligned to display the mastery or non-mastery of a subject aimed for students to understand. This type of assessment is basically right or wrong, there is no variability displaying students' comprehension. Students may become jealous of their fellow peers, lose self-confidence or be labeled with stressful expectations causing testing anxiety. This method gives students either a pass (mastery of topic) or fail (non- mastery of topic). There is no grey room in this rigid black-and-white for students to display some understanding. Pros Cons It has been proved as the most educational assessments available to measure information, such as spelling quizzes or mathematical word problems. These assessments do not allow students to transfer their knowledge to real world skills. In this clip, college applications of one student in particular is being compared to others on various levels to be considered for acceptance. This technique also does not enable the teacher to reflect upon students individually, such as considering their OSFs factors or cultural funds of knowledge. These assessments value educational comprehension in the classroom, however, it does not address vital understanding to be transferred to the outside world. Pros Cons Measures students' knowledge and skills in real-life.
Can be either paper and pencil or performance based. Restrictions may apply due to limits of supplies, of time or of the expectations of the common core standards. This comic, a personal favorite of mine, displays how assessing real-life knowledge concerning a more personal aspect rather than an educational one occurs. Pros Cons An assessment which focuses upon a more personalized method concerning how to approach a classroom, such as considering students' needs. When using this assessment, we as teachers must be aware of still being able to cover the needed standards. This clip shows how the teacher from "10 Things I Hate About You" adapts the Shakespearean language into a more modernized presentation. By considering different approaches to the same material, this type of assessment can make the students more interested, engaged and motivated, increasing their understanding. Pros Cons Can be easily standardized if needed
Graded items are highly reliable.
Can address many topics for more information regarding the student. Can take up some time when planning as well as class time.
Also, it may require some special resources and materials.
May not result in accurate representation of student. This clip demonstrates how formal assessment can be standardized, yet takes time, needs materials and as teachers we can lose a connection with our students. If the assessment is too formal, then that teacher-student bond is weakened. If too informal, then the teacher-student relationship becomes too casual - without any sense of authority or respect. The four characteristics of good classroom assessment: G Elements that characterize authentic assessment: Goal
Standards (Wiggins 2005) (Wiggins 2005) Six Facets of Understanding Formative evaluation can help provide a starting point of how much knowledge the student understands, then summative evaluation can assess how much the student learned. These concepts can be used as "blueprints" when designing lessons 1. Explanation
6. Self-Knowledge Conclusion The root of the idea is for students to actually comprehend the material we as instructors teach them. That's why it is important as potential educators to constantly self-reflect and make sure that our assessment is the correct type and aligns itself with the learning objective and reflects the six facets of learning as well as the four characteristics of good classroom assessment (RSVP). Why Assessment? Assessment offers several forms and allows for teachers to best check for student understanding When students adjust their thinking to yes or no responses, it simply restricts their thinking causing misconceptions. When students are treated all the same with standardized testing, despite not learning the same ways, we can't expect all of them to truly understand the materials. Students are all different - not echoes, shadows or cookie cutter children. Evaluating