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Endocrine System

An overview of the endocrine system, including the molecular physiology of lipid-soluable and water-soluble hormones.

Brandon Poe

on 26 September 2015

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Transcript of Endocrine System

circadian rhythms
chemical concentrations of interstial fluids
metabolism and energy
contraction of cardiac and smooth muscles
glandular secretions
immune physiology
bone and organ growth
reproductive physiology
immune development
Chemical Classes of Hormones
Lipid-soluble hormones are based on hydrocarbon molecules such as steroids. Water-soluble hormones may be based on amino acids (including protein hormones) or derived from hydrocarbons that have hydrophilic functional groups added to them by enzymes.
Since blood, the medium that hormones travel through, is mostly water, lipid-soluble hormones have to associate with special transport proteins, however water-soluble hormones dissolve in blood easily.
Lipid-soluble hormones cross the lipid bilayer cell membrane easily, so their receptors are in the cell nucleus. Water-soluble hormones can not cross the cell membrane, so they bind to transmembrane receptor proteins.
Hormone Actions and Regulation
Hormone Secretion
Hormone Interactions
Hormones are secreted from the cells that produce them through the endomembranous system
genes are transcribed in the nucleus
mRNA is translated by ribosomes on the rough ER
protein is moved to the Golgi apparatus by transport vesicle
Golgi apparatus packages protein into secretory vesicle
vesicle merges with cell membrane and releases hormone through exocytosis
The synergistic effect occurs when more than one hormone produces the same effects and their combined effects are greater or more extensive than the sum of each hormone acting alone.

An example is the combined effects of follicle stimulating hormone and estrogens on the maturation of egg cells in the ovary. Neither one could activate the entire process, but together they cuase it to happen.
Hypothalamic Regulation and the Pituitary Gland
Comparison of Nervous and Endocrine Communication
Pancreatic Endocrine Function
Regulation of Calcium levels:
Thyroid and Parathyroid

Hormone production and secretion is regulated by:
signals from the nervous system,
chemical changes in the blood, and
other hormones
Often, a homeostatic mechanism is based on the endocrine function of two competing hormones. When one hormone causes a change, the antagonist is there to keep the controlled condition under check.

An example of this antagonistic interplay is the combined effects of insulin and glucagon. Insulin lowers blood-glucose levels (for example, after eating) and glucagon raises blood-glucose levels (after fasting). These two hormones are produced and released from the same gland (the pancreas).
What molecule is the precursor for this hormone?
A) cholesterol
B) amino acid
C) serotonin
D) prostaglandin
Which of the following is the vesicle that releases the hormone into the extracellular space?
What type of cells release hypothalamic hormones?

A) glandular cells
B) epithelial cells
C) neurosecretory cells
D) sympathetic cells
What is necessary for a cell to have to make it the "target cell" of a hormone?

A) nucleus
B) neurotransmitter
C) receptor
D) synapse
Where are posterior pituitary hormones made?

A) anterior pituitary
B) posterior pituitary
C) hypothalamus
D) pineal gland
Which of the following is not a water-soluable hormone?

A) testosterone
B) insulin
C) epinephrine
D) oxytocin
Which of the following is a second messenger?

A) hormone
C) receptor protein
D) effector protein
What neurotransmitter receptor is found in cardiac tissue and causes the muscle to contract more slowly?

A) Alpha-adrenergic
B) Muscarinic
C) Beta-adrenergic
D) Nicotinic
What hormone would cause the pupil to dilate

A) Acetylcholine
B) Norepinephrine
C) Serotonin
D) Epinephrine
Growth and Development
Hormone Receptors
For lipid-soluble hormones
For water-soluble hormones
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_hormone
Growth Hormone
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Second_Messenger_System.jpg
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Second_Messenger_System.jpg
G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR)
Receptor protein
Effector protein
Image adapted from: Abe, K. (2000) Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 20, 1393–1408 http://www.nature.com/jcbfm/journal/v20/n10/images/9590992f1.jpg
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