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Europe in the Middle Ages
Transcript of Europe in the Middle Ages
Section 1: Peasants, Trade, and Cities
The Manorial System
The New Agriculture
Between 1000 and 1300, the population in Europe grew from 38 mil. to 74 mil.
What caused this huge increase?
-An increase in food production
-Changes in technology
-Shifting from a 2-field to
3-field crop rotation
What are some examples of technology
that aided the development of farming?
1. People began to harness the power of water
and wind to replace human power.
2. Iron was used to make tools for farming--
sythes, axes, hoes, carruca
Under the manorial system of the Middle Ages, serfs worked the lands of the lords.
-had land to grow crops for themselves, and this land could not easily be
taken from them
-were peasants legally bound to the land
-had to pay to use common land, streams, and ponds
-were not permitted to leave the manor without permission from the lord
-could not marry without the lord's permission
-were controlled politically by the lords
-were not slaves
-protected by lords
-led simple lives
-worked very hard
-able to celebrate Catholic holidays, Sunday mass, and sacraments
-ate adequately (bread was basic staple)
The Revival of Trade
-Italian cities such as Venice developed a mercantile fleet and became
major trading centers in the Mediterranean.
-Flanders (along coast of present-day Belgium and northern France)
was ideally located for trading (woolen cloth).
-Hanseatic League ( a midieval trade association) developed in the Baltic and North Sea region.
-Trade fairs were established. Goods traded included furs, woolen cloth, tin, hemp,
honey, swords, silks, and spices.
-A money economy, rather than barter, emerged.
The Growth of Cities
The revival of trade spurred the growth of cities,
which became centers for manufacturing and trade.
Merchants began to settle in old Roman cities; population grew
New cities and towns were founded, often near a castle located a long a trade route or river, because the lords of the castle would offer protection.
-these cities came to be called bourgeoisie (coming from German word burg/"walled enclosure"
-towns were closely tied to the land around them, and the lord that owned the territory.
Medievel cities were not huge. Trading centers would number 5,000. By 1200, London had more than 40,000 people and was the largest city.
Townspeople had rights: Towns:
-to buy and sell property -were overcrowded, dirty, smelly
-freedom from military service to the lord -closely grouped wooden houses (fire hazards)
-could purchase freedom -often had unsafe water to drink
-self-governing with own law courts -had more men than women
Industry and Guilds
Towns and cities manufactured goods such as cloth, metalwork, shoes, and leather goods.
Crafts people began to associate by forming guilds. Every craft had its guild, and the set the standards for the quality of produced goods.
Guilds controlled every aspect of production including the price at which goods could be sold and how many people could enter a specific trade.
To learn a trade, first a person had to become an
. They were not paid, but received room and board. After 5 to 7 years, they became
and worked for wages for other masters. To judge if a journeyman was qualified to become a
, he would have to produce a masterpiece ( a finished piece in their craft).
End of section 1
Since the 5th century, the popes of the Catholic Church had much political power. The Church became involved in the feudal system; it was in danger of becoming more of a political than a religious institution.
Reform of the Papacy/Investiture Controversy
-By 11 th century, Church leaders realized the need to be free from the lords' interference in the appointment of Church officials.
-Pope Gregory VII believed he was chosen by God to reform the Church. Lay investiture had to be eliminated, and the Church would appoint clergy to run its own affairs. The pope could remove any ruler who did not accept this.
-Soon conflict developed with Henry IV. For many years, german kings had appointed high-ranking clerics in order to use them as administrators and keep power of German nobles.
-Henry IV had no intention of obeying a papal decree that challenged this.
-This struggle lasted until a new German king and new pope reached a compromise known as the Concordat of Worms in 1122. Agreement said a bishop in Germany was first elected by Church officials.
*lay investiture: The practice by which the secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office (p. 342).
4 min lecture on
New Religious Orders:
In the late 1000s and early 1100s there was a wave of religious enthusiasm. Both men and women jined religiousorders in increasing numbers.
-founded in 1098 by monks who were unhappy with the lack of discipline in their own Benedictine monastery.
-spread quickly from southern France to rest of Europe
-strict order-very simple
-started a new spiritual model for 12 th century Europe-took religion outside the monastery and to the people.
-Bernard of Clairvaux embodied this new ideal
Women in Religious Orders
In the high middle ages, most nuns were from aristocratic families
-convents were convenient for families who did not have anyone to marry their daughteres, for those not wanting to marry, or for widows.
Hildegard of Bingen
-became abbess of a religious house for females in werstern Germany.
-one of first women composers.
-Contirbutor to body of music known as Gregorian chant
-remarkable for a woman to do this at the time
Franciscans and Dominicans-2 new orders that emerged in the 1200s
-Founded by Francis of Assisi
-Had a series of dramatic spiritual experiences
-He abandoned all worldy goods/lived in poverty
-attracted followers who took vows of poverty
-Became very powerful
-They called for a return to the simplicity and poverty
of the early Church
-Undertook missionary work in Europe and the Muslim
-Founded by Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzman
-wanted to defend Church teachings from heresy (the
denial fo basic Church functions).
-believed a new religous order of men who lived in
poverty and could preach effectively would best attack
Religion in the High Middle Ages
The Church of the High Middle Ages
-was a crucial part of ordinary life from birth to death
-sacraments were seen as means for salvation
-people venerated saints who could ask for favors from God
-Jesus' apostles, Mary (mother of Jesus, most highly regarded)
-local saints of special significance to an area like St. Nicholas (Italian)
-Relics were considered worthy of worship (bones of saints, e.g.)
-provided link between earthly world and God
-believed they could heal and/or produce miracles
-Pilgrimage to a holy shrine produced a spiritual benefit.
-Holy city of Jerusalem/greatest shrine
-Rome contained the relics ofPeter and Paul
-Santiago de Compostela, supposedly the site of the tomb of apostle James.
-Local shrines dedicated to Mary
End of section 2
Culture of the High Middle Ages
- 11 th and 12 th centuries - explosion of building, especially churches
-Cathedrals-Romanesque style (basilica shape)
-basilica shape was rectangular with flat wooden roofs
-roofs were replaced with a long round stone arched vault or cross vault.
-Heavy roofs required massive pillars
-Gothic style appeared in the 12 th century:
-greatest artistic triumph of High Middle Ages
-replaced the round barrel vault with a combo of ribbed vaults and pointed arches.
-flying buttress- a heavy, arched support of stone built onto the outside of the walls
-walls were thin and could be filled with stained glass windows that depicted both religious scenes and daily life scenes.
-The university of today was a product of the High Middle Ages
-First University appeared in Bologna, Italy
-University of Paris was the first university in northern Europe
-Oxford-founded in late 1300s in England
-Theology-most highly regarded subject (study of God)
-Scholasticism-philosophical system that tried to reconcile faith and reason.
-Aristotle ideas sometimes contradicted Church teachings.
-Latin was the universal language used in the Church and schools.
-12 th century literature began to written in everyday language, or the vernacular.
-The most popular was
that told of the love of a knight for a lady who inspires him.
-Jaufre Rudel wrote of a woman he loved and feared he would never meet (see primary source p. 351)
-Chanson de geste, or heroic epic (Song of Roland), written in French around 1100 (knights fight for their lords).
End of section 3
Life of Francis of Assisi
The Late Middle Ages
The Black Death occured in the 1300s and was catastrophic in Europe.
Bubonic Plague/Black Death:
-spread by black rats infested with fleas carrying deadly bacteria
-1/3 to 1/2 of the 75 million died of the plague between 1347 and 1351
-Social impact of bubonic plague:
-Many believed it was punishment from God or the devil caused it
-Some blamed the Jews
-Severe economic consequences were due to so many dying
-Serfs were able to change from owing services to paying rent
-Read page 354 to learn more about the effects of the Bubonic Plague
Watch this video about the Black Death---->
Decline of Church Power
The popes reached the height of their power in the 1200s. In the 1300s, the Church's power declined.
The Popes at Avignon 1305-1377
-Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV had conflict:
-Philip claimed the right to tax clergy, but Boniface argued the pope's consent was needed for that.
-Boniface said popes were supreme over church and state.
-Philip wanted to bring Boniface to trial, but B. escaped and died.
-Philip engineered the election of Clement V from France as pope.
-He lived in Avignon which caused conflict
-Strong criticism of papacy due to the splendor of life there
In 1377, the pope at the time, Gregory XI, returned to Rome. He soon died and when choosing a new pope, the citizens of Rome demanded an Italian to be elected. Pope Urban VI, and Italian was elected. The French cardinals declared the election invalid and chose a Frenchman as pope and he returned to Avignon. Now there were 2 popes...
The Great Schism of the Church (1378 to 1417)
-France and allies supported French pope
-England (France's enemy) and its allies supported the Italian pope
-Damaged the church because both popes denounced the other as being Anti-Christ
-A church counsel met in 1417 in Switzerland and the popes had to resign or be deposed
-A new pope was elected.
-Czech reformer that called for an end to corruption of the clergy and excessive papal power.
-Accused of heresy and burned at the stake which caused the Czechs to revolt.
-By the early 1400s, Church lost must of its political power and spiritual authority.
The Hundred Years' War
England and France went to war over theduchy of Gascony that England possessed and France wanted.
The War Begins:
-Knights viewed battle as a chance to show their fighting abilities
-It was the peasant foot soldiers, not the knights who were the strongest
-First major battle occurred in 1346 at Crecy.
-French had large force but no battle plan
-English devastated them but did not have enough resources to conquer all of France.
-Battle of Agincourt in 1415
-French were defeated and lost 1500 nobles
Joan of Arc
-French, daughter of prosperous peasants, and deeply religious
-Experienced visions and believed sayings had commanded her to free France
-She persuaded the heir to the French throne, Charles, to allow her to go with French army
-She brought the French army new confidence and French seized Orleans, a turning point.
-English captured her and charged her with witchcraft and was condemned to death.
1300s--New Monarchies (France, England, and Spain)
-War left France exhausted.
-King Louis XI ruled from 1461 to 1483/known to be devious
-taxed people for land/property
-gave Louis regular source of income
-created foundations for a strong monarchy
-Muslims had conquered much of Spain by about 725/
-In the fight to regain conquered land, several Christian kingdoms emerged such as Aragon and Castile
-Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon (1469) and this helped unify Sp.
-They worked together to strengthen their royal control in the dual monarchy.
-religious unity = political unity
-pursued strict policy of Catholocism
-They xpelled Jews and Muslims
-Spain = Catholic