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Nonvascular Plants

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Jacob Gerace

on 19 January 2011

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Transcript of Nonvascular Plants

Definition: Evolution of Plants Organisms categorized as nonvascular plants are first categorized in the Plantae Kingdom because they share 4 defining characteristics (Alternation of generations, Apical meristems, Multicellular gametangia, walled spores in sporangia)

They are separated from other plants, and bound together under nonvascular plants, in that they do not have vascular tissue, and have a dominant gametophyte generation Vascular Tissue is tissue that serves to circulate fluids (other plants have this in the form of Xylem and Phloem) Dominant Gametophyte Generation:
Nonvascular plants go through most life processes haploid (n) Life Cycle The mature sporophyte Generation produces spores through Meiosis
The Haploid spores grow into protonemata, which
are threadlike structures. This then grows into the main entity of the nonvascular plant.
Rootlike Rhizoids develop
The plant grows both male and female gametophores The Male gametophyte releases sperm (produced by Mitosis!) from the Antheridia
The sperm swims through a film of mosture to the female gametophyte, to its egg (also produced by Mitosis!) in the Archegonia. It then fertilizes the egg.
Therefore, nonvascular plants must live in a wet environment to survive Meiosis and Growth of Gametophyte Generation Fertilization Growth of Sporophyte Generation The sporophyte generation grows within the Archegonium Modern nonvascular plants are a paraphyletic group, encompassing: Types Liverworts (Marchantiophyta) Mosses (Bryophyta) Hornworts (Anthocerotophyta) Important Body Parts There are many body parts listed in both the review book and textbook here are the ones you must know:

Like all plants, gametes are produced in multicellular organs - gametangia

Archegonia - Female gametangia, produces one egg through mitosis

Antheridia - Male gametangia, produces many sperm through mitosis, and releases them

Rhizoid - Rootlike structures that grow into the earth, but they do not absorb nutrients they only hold bryophytes in place

Sporangium, Capsule and Stalk - the sporangium is the sporophyte generation, it grows on the gametophyte. It is made up of a capsule and a stalk. The capsule releases spores, the stalk holds it up Nonvascular Plants
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