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Reconstruction and the New South
Transcript of Reconstruction and the New South
The Battle Over Reconstruction
Disagreements over Reconstruction led to conflict in the government and in the South→Radical Republicans wanted a strict Reconstruction, but President Johnson wanted to be more lenient.
Section 1: Rebuilding the Nation
Rebuilding the Nation
Timeline of Chapter Events
The End of Reconstruction
With the end of the Reconstruction, African Americans in the South lost many rights they had previously gained.
1863 - 1896
As the Civil War ended, Americans faced the problem of how to reunite the nation.
Preparing for Reunion
The Freedmen's Bureau
Lincoln is Murdered
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
was the 16th President of USA.
He wanted to heal the nation quickly, so he introduced
a plan called the "Ten Percent Plan" in December 1863:
When ten percent of a state's voters promise to be
loyal to the US, they could make a new state
government. That government could send
members to Congress and get involved with the
national government after abolishing slavery.
Former Confederates who took the oath would be forgiven. This was called
amnesty, or a group pardon
This promise of amnesty did not affect the Confederate government leaders
and military officers.
The Wade-Davis Bill
In July 1864, Congress passed a harsher Reconstruction plan:
Fifty percent of voters would have to sign a loyalty oath for the state to become part of the Union again. Anyone who had fought for the Confederates willingly would not be allowed to vote for delegates to write a new constitution. They also did not have the right to vote.
Lincoln did not sign the Bill, so it never became a law.
Abraham Lincoln and his supporters thought that a lenient policy would win them good supporters from the South. But their opponents, known as the Radical Republicans, said that a strict policy would keep the South from acting out and possibly overpower the Radical Republicans.
To deal with the problems of
freedmen, or enslaved people who had been freed by the war
and other refugees, the Congress founded the Freedmen's Bureau in March 1865. They first provided emergency relief.
The Freedmen's Bureau started schools to teach African Americans how to read and write.
They were very eager to learn, and often started schools by themselves.
Southern states started public schools that educated both black and whites.
The Freedmen's Bureau also started colleges, universities and other extensive educational institutions.
The Freedmen's Bureau aided the freed slaves in finding jobs.
When arguments arose between whites and the colored, the Bureau settled them down. For example, when one tried to trick a freedman, the Bureau had a special court in which they dealt with such problems.
Lincoln wished for a
but he couldn't put his
plans into effect.
On April 14, 1865,
Wilkes Booth, a
assassinated him while he was enjoying a play.
Booth was shot dead two weeks later.
Lincoln was succeeded by his Vice President, Andrew Johnson, whom many expected to treat the Reconstruction strictly.
Top: John Wilkes Booth
Right: Andrew Johnson
A Growing Conflict
The Fourteenth Amendment
African Americans Lose Rights
A Cycle of Poverty
, the 17th President of the US, followed Lincoln in the Reconstruction: he put a lenient plan into effect without consulting his legislators.
The Thirteenth Amendment
The Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery and forced labor.
It also gave Congress the power to make law in order to reach this goal.
Johnson's plan included amnesty and granted the South the right to make new state governments and send representatives to Congress after abolishing slavery and ratifying the Thirteenth Amendment.
In December 1985, Congress met and was surprised to see many Confederate leaders. They refused to follow Johnson's plan:
They didn't allow seating for the southerners.
They made a committee to make a new plan for the South.
When the committee consulted the public, they heard about
black codes, or new laws used by Southern states to control African Americans
. This was replacing slavery with something almost exactly like it. For example, they couldn't vote in Mississippi.
Congress became angry at these issues and made the Radical Republicans adopt a hard line. Their goals were to stop Confederates from acquiring power and make sure freedmen get a right to vote and stay safe
The President and Congress were always disagreeing.
Because the African Americans were being treated badly in the South, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which gave citizenship to African Americans and civil rights to everyone except Native Americans.
President Johnson vetoed that bill and another one the extended the Freedmen's Bureau's life. Congress overturned both vetoes and voted for it, so it became a law.
They also made the Fourteenth Amendment, so that the Court wouldn't strike down the Act.
At first, the Amendment didn't win much approval, but it finally was approved after the Radicals took control of the Reconstruction in 1868.
It states that:
All people born or naturalized in USA are citizens
States cannot pass laws that take away a citizen's rights
States cannot deny the protection of law to anyone, nor take away anyone's life, freedom or property with the process of law
The Fourteenth Amendment became a strong tool for putting civil rights into effect.
Radicals in Charge
By early 1867, Radical Republicans won enough votes to start a stricter Reconstruction.
Their Reconstruction Act of 1867:
Took out the governments that did not ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Imposed military rule on these states and divided them into five military districts.
To join the Union again, the states would have to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, let African Americans vote, and write a new constitution.
Because of this act, the South began to change.
In June 1868, Congress let representatives from seven "reconstructed" states sit.
Time of Hope and Advancement
People became angrier and angrier as the elections of 1866 came nearer, and whites started attacking African Americans. Congress became mad at this violence and made the Reconstruction stricter.
Blacks in the South got new jobs and played active roles in politics (sheriffs, judges, mayors, etc.)
were the nation's first African American senators.
The South opened public schools, spread taxes evenly, made fairer voting rules, granted property rights to women, rebuilt bridges, roads, and buildings destroyed by the war.
Old southern leaders had little power left. Instead, Republicans built a strong three party group:
Scalawags - Southern whites that had opposed secession
Carpetbaggers - a name given to Southerners by Northern whites who went south to start business or pursue political office
Left to right: Hiram Revels and Blache Bruce
Targeting President Johnson
The Radicals tried removing President Johnson by impeachment—the bringing of formal charges against a public official.
Johnson barely escaped impeachment. After the House voted to impeach him, the Senate voted from March to May. The votes were 35 for to 19 against which were just one short of of two-thirds needed to impeach him.
The Election of 1868
General Ulysses S. Grant won the election for the Republicans.
African Americans voted mainly for Republicans.
Grant won 26 of 34 electoral votes.
Because of his election, Radicals began losing hold on the Republican Party.
Right: Ulysses S. Grant
The Ku Klux Klan
Congress approved the Fifteenth Amendment in 1869.
It barred all states from denying African Americans the right to vote.
Some African Americans said it was too weak because it didn't stop states from making it mandatory to own property or pay a tax to vote.
The amendment took effect in 1870.
Some whites that were angry because they were being shut out of power.
They resorted to violence against Blacks
and their allies.
The most well-known terrorizing
society is the Ku Klux Klan. They wore
white hoods and robes and called
They rode to African American voting
houses and burned cross and yelled threats,
and even shot, tortured, whipped, and hung
them. This violence was very common in the
Even after the Congress passed The KKK Acts of 1870 and 1871, violence remained. Other groups formed after the original one disappeared. Because of them, African Americans reduced their voting.
Americans forgot about the Civil War and focused on their own lives, mainly because of scandals in President Grant's administration. His reputation suffered because the friends he appointed to offices often turned out to be corrupt. He was reelected in 1872 but many northerners abandoned Republicans and their policies.
Self-rule for the South
The Election of 1876
Citizens asked for withdrawal of troops in the South and full amnesty for former Confederates.
Opponents of Republicans began to accept the South again, state by state. They also slowly took away African American rights.
Secret terror campaigns also helped Democrats regain power. By 1877, they controlled all Southern states.
Because of the election of 1876, the Reconstruction ended.
Republicans said that they would continue Reconstruction and
Democrats said that they would end it. The Republican candidate
was Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio and the Democrat candidate was
Samuel J. Tilden of New York.
Tilden won popular vote, but there was dispute over 20 electoral
votes. He fell one vote short of winning the electoral college.
To fix the problem, Congress made a committee of 15 members,
most of them Republicans. It gave all 20 votes to Hayes. The
Democrats, suprisingly, did not fight the decision. This was
because Hayes privately told them beforehand that he would
end the Reconstruction, and he did do that, once in office.
Top to bottom: Samuel J. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes
As the Reconstruction ended, Blacks began to lose rights like being able to vote, in many different ways. The South passed law that applied to both whites and blacks, but were enforced mainly against African Americans:
Poll taxes, which were personal taxes to be paid before voting
, kept many poor freedmen from voting.
Literacy tests tested people to see if they could read or write.
They were required to read the Constitution and explain it.
For illiterate whites, a law called the
grandfather clause, a provision that allowed a voter to avoid a literacy test if father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867,
was passed. No African American could vote before 1868, so most of them could not vote.
The South also passed law that said segregation, or enforced separation of races, was mandatory. These "Jim Crow" laws prohibited mixing of races in almost every activity. Blacks had different hospitals, cemeteries, playgrounds, restaurants and more.
In 1896, the Supreme Court declared segregation OK:
, a member of the New Orleans' Citizens' Committee, a committee that went
against segregation laws, was
arrested for sitting in a whites-only
coach. The Court ruled that
segregation was alright: a law could
make separate facilities as long as
they were equal. (Homer Plessy
passed as a white, but declared he
was black. He had a black
grandparent, and that was how he was "colored".)
The "separate but equal" rule applied until the 1950s. This rule was never true, though. For instance, African American public schools were almost always worse than those of the whites.
When slaves were first freed, they did not owe others much. But when they became poor along with some whites, they became
sharecroppers, or laborers who work the land for the farmer who owns it, in exchange for a share of the value of the crop.
The landlord paid for everything they needed throughout the year (food, tools, clothes, etc.) on credit. He would then sell the crop and determine how much went to the sharecroppers.
A lot of times, sharecroppers did not earn enough to cover this. Then they had to work more; thus they were locked into a cycle of debt.
They had less and less job opportunities too. Artisans found jobs closed to them. Some educated blacks became teachers and the like in African American communities, but most blacks took up whatever menial job they could find.
Section 3: The End of Reconstruction
Section 2: The Battle Over Reconstruction
The South faced major economic and social challenges at the end of the Civil War.
Reconstruction plans and programs like the Freedmen's Bureau wre designed to rebuild the South.
The death of Abraham Lincoln threatened lenient plans for Reconstruction.
President Andrew Johnson and the Radical Republicans clashed over Reconstruction plans.
Conflict over Reconstruction led to Andrew Johnson's impeachment.
During Reconstruction, African American males gained the right to vote. Republicans came to power in each southern state.
With the end of the Reconstruction, African Americans in the South lost many rights they had gained after the Civil War.
Many African Americans and poor whites were forced to become sharecroppers.
The South's agriculture revived, and its industries expanded.
Slowly, southern economy started to recover.
First, cotton production revived and set new records.
Tobacco output grew.
Investors started and expanded industries that turned raw material into finished products.
Textile industry had a big role in southern economy.
Unlike before, they developed their abundant natural resources.
Mills and factories used southern iron, timber, and oil.
Leaders of the South took great pride in the industrialized "New South".
An industrial age was underway.
A man who was arrested for purposely sitting in a whites-only car and refusing to get up
Personal tax to be paid before voting
Examination to see if a person can read or write; used in the past to restrict voting rights
Law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867
Enforced separation of races
Person who rents a plot of land and farms it in exchange for a share of the crop
The 16th President of USA
John Wilkes Booth:
The man who assassinated Lincoln
Men and women who were legally freed from slavery after the Civil War
The 17th President of USA and Vice President of Lincoln
Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce:
First black senators
Southern laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans
Southern white who had opposed secession
Uncomplimentary nickname for a northern white who went to the South after the Civil War to start a business or pursue a political career
President Lincoln proposes mild Reconstruction plan.
Lincoln is assassinated five days after the war ends.
Radical Reconstruction begins.
15th Amendment is ratified by the states.
Rutherford B. Hayes becomes President after a disputed election.
Supreme Court upholds separate facilities for blacks and whites.