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Art History Timeline
Transcript of Art History Timeline
Mesopotamian Art 3500 - 331 BC
Mycenean Art 1650 - 1100 BC Egyptian Art 3200 - 1070 BC Ancient Egyptian art forms are characterized by regularity and detailed depiction of gods, human beings, heroic battles, and nature, and were intended to provide solace to the deceased in the afterlife. All Egyptian reliefs were painted, and less prestigious works in tombs, temples and palaces were just painted on a flat surface. Mesopotamian Art 3500 - 331 BC The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia are the source of the earliest surviving art; these civilizations were situated between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Dating back to 3500 B.C.E., Mesopotamian art was intended to serve as a way to glorify powerful rulers and their connection to divinity. Art was made from natural resources such as stone, shells, alabaster and marble, and was often created as didactic pieces. Mycenean Art (Greece) 1650 - 1100 BC The last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, it is the historical setting of much ancient Greek literature and myth, including the epics of Homer. The imposing character of Mycenaean architecture is best illustrated by their tombs, a unique structural form called a beehive, or tholos tomb. At first Mycenaeans buried their dead in simple shaft graves, which were lined with pebbles. CLASSIC CIVILIZATIONS 800 BC - 337 AD Etruscan Art 6th - 5th century BC
Roman Art 509 BC - 337 AD Etruscan Art 6th - 5th century BC Etruscan art was the form of figurative art produced by the Etruscan civilization in central Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC. Particularly strong in this tradition were figurative sculpture in terracotta (particularly life-size on sarcophagi or temples) and cast bronze, wall-painting and metalworking (especially engraved bronze mirrors and situlae). Roman art includes architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Luxury objects in metal-work, gem engraving, ivory carvings, and glass, are sometimes considered in modern terms to be minor forms of Roman art, although this would not necessarily have been the case for contemporaries. Sculpture was perhaps considered as the highest form of art by Romans, but figure painting was also very highly regarded. Roman Art
509 BC - 337 AD Celtic Art 200 - 732 AD
Byzantine Art 400 - 1453 AD
Gothic Style 1140 - 1500 AD MIDDLE AGES
373 - 1453 AD Typically, Celtic art is ornamental, avoiding straight lines and only occasionally using symmetry, without the imitation of nature central to the classical tradition, often involving complex symbolism. Celtic art has used a variety of styles and has shown influences from other cultures in their knotwork, spirals, key patterns, lettering, zoomorphics, plant forms and human figures. Celtic Art
200 - 732 AD The subject matter of monumental Byzantine art was primarily religious and imperial: the two themes are often combined, as in the portraits of later Byzantine emperors that decorated the interior of the sixth-century church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople. These preoccupations are partly a result of the pious and autocratic nature of Byzantine society, and partly a result of its economic structure: the wealth of the empire was concentrated in the hands of the church and the imperial office, which therefore had the greatest opportunity to undertake monumental artistic commissions. Byzantine Art
400 - 1453 AD Gothic art was a style of Medieval art that developed in France out of Romanesque art in the mid-12th century, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture. Primary media in the Gothic period included sculpture, panel painting, stained glass, fresco and illuminated manuscripts. The easily recognisable shifts in architecture from Romanesque to Gothic, and Gothic to Renaissance styles, are typically used to define the periods in art in all media, although in many ways figurative art developed at a different pace. Gothic Style
1140 - 1500 AD Renaissance: Italy 1400 - 1600 AD
Renaissance: Europe 1500 - 1600 AD
Baroque 1600 - 1700 AD
Rococo 1700 - 1750 AD RENAISSANCE
1400 - 1800 AD Italian Renaissance painting can be divided into four periods: the Proto-Renaissance (1300–1400), the Early Renaissance (1400–1475), the High Renaissance (1475–1525), and Mannerism (1525–1600). These dates are approximations rather than specific points because the lives of individual artists and their personal styles overlapped the different periods. Renaissance - Italy
1400 - 1600 AD Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history known as the Renaissance. Renaissance artists painted a wide variety of themes. Religious altarpieces, fresco cycles, and small works for private devotion were very popular. For inspiration, painters in both Italy and northern Europe frequently turned to Jacobus de Voragine's Golden Legend (1260), a highly influential source book for the lives of saints that had already had a strong influence on Medieval artists. The rebirth of classical antiquity and Renaissance humanism also resulted in many Mythological and history paintings. Renaissance - Europe
1500 - 1600 AD The Baroque is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. Baroque Art
1600 - 1700 AD Rococo is a movement in the arts and architecture in 18th-century Europe, particularly in France, that tended towards lightness, elegance, delicacy, and decorative charm. The term ‘rococo’ is derived from the French rocaille (rock- or shell-work), a soft style of interior decoration, based on S-curves and scroll-like forms. Other rococo features include the use of fantastic ornament and pretty, naturalistic details. Rococo
1700 - 1750 AD Neoclassicism 1750 - 1880 AD
Romanticism 1800 - 1880 AD
Realism 1830’s – 1850’s AD
Impressionism 1870’s – 1890’s AD Neoclassicism is a revival of the styles and spirit of classic antiquity inspired directly from the classical period, which coincided and reflected the developments in philosophy and other areas of the Age of Enlightenment, and was initially a reaction against the excesses of the preceding Rococo style. Neoclassical artists sought to capture qualities by copying classical styles and subject matter (mainly by using columns, pediments, friezes, and ornamental motifs). They took themes from Homer and Plutarch and were influenced by John Flaxman's simple linear illustrations for the Iliad and Odyssey. PRE - MODERN
1800 - 1880 AD Neoclassicism
1750 - 1880 AD In the visual arts, Romanticism first showed itself in landscape painting, where from as early as the 1760s British artists began to turn to wilder landscapes and storms, and Gothic architecture, even if they had to make do with Wales as a setting. Other groups of artists expressed feelings that verged on the mystical, many very largely abandoning classical drawing and proportions. Romanticism
1800 - 1880 AD Realism in the visual arts is the general attempt to depict subjects as they are considered to exist in third person objective reality, without embellishment or interpretation and in accordance with secular, empirical rules. The artists at this time "told it as it is" so to speak. They drew what they had seen without any bias added. The artists simply focused on what was happening in front of them. Realism
1830’s -1850’s AD The core of the Impressionist group was formed in the early 1860s by Monet, Renoir, and Sisley, who met as students and enjoyed painting in the open air – one of the hallmarks of Impressionism. They met other members of the Impressionist circle through Paris café society. They never made up a formal group, but they organized eight group exhibitions between 1874 and 1886, at the first of which the name Impressionism was applied. Their styles were diverse, but all experimented with effects of light and movement created with distinct brushstrokes and fragments of colour dabbed side-by-side on the canvas rather than mixed on the palette. By the 1880s the movement's central impulse had dispersed, and a number of new styles were emerging, later described as post-Impressionism. Impressionism
1870’s -1890’s AD Post Impressionism 1880 - 1900 AD
Expressionism 1900 - 1920 AD
Cubism 1907 - 1914 AD
Dada 1916 - 1922 AD
Bauhaus 1920’s - 1940’s AD
Surrealism (1924) 1920’s - 1940’s AD MODERNISM
1880 - 1945 AD Broad term covering various developments in French painting that developed out of Impressionism in the period from about 1880 to about 1905. Some of these developments built on the achievements of Impressionism, but others were reactions against its concentration on surface appearances, seeking to reintroduce a concern with emotional and symbolic values. Post Impressionism
1880 -1900 AD The term was coined in 1910 by the British art critic Roger Fry, in the title of ‘Manet and the Post-Impressionists’, an exhibition he organized at the Grafton Galleries, London. Fry also organized a second post-Impressionist exhibition two years later.
The artists who were best represented at the first exhibition were Cézanne, Gauguin, and van Gogh, and these three are regarded as the most important and influential of the post-Impressionists, closely followed by Georges Seurat. Seurat was the founder of the movement called neo-Impressionism, in which artists attempted to treat colour and light with the same affection as the Impressionists, but in a more rational and consistent way. Cézanne, Gauguin, and van Gogh all thought that Impressionism had concentrated too much on appearances; they wanted painting to be colourful and modern, as the Impressionists had made it, but they also wanted it to be deeply serious. Cézanne tried to combine Impressionist warmth with a powerful sense of structure; Gauguin used line and colour symbolically to deal with timeless themes of life and death; and van Gogh used vivid colour and vigorous brushwork to express human passions. Fry's post-Impressionist exhibitions, especially the first, attracted a huge amount of publicity. It was the first time that the work of Cézanne, Gauguin, and van Gogh had been seen in such strength in Britain (there were more than 20 paintings by each of them in the first exhibition) and many people with conservative views thought that their pictures were childish and degenerate; some people thought that Fry was insane. However, many artists were greatly impressed with the exhibitions and they had a particularly strong influence on several members of the Camden Town Group, encouraging them to use strong, flat colour. Style of painting and sculpture that expresses inner emotions; in particular, a movement in early 20th-century art in northern and central Europe. Expressionist artists tended to distort or exaggerate natural colour and appearance in order to describe an inner vision or emotion. In expressionism, it is considered more important that the work depicts the subjective, personal emotions accurately, than that the subjects drawn are an accurate, external presentation of reality. Despite this one, unifying motivation behind expressionism, there is no single, particular style associated with the movement. Expressionism
1900 -1920 AD Revolutionary style of painting created by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in Paris between 1907 and 1914. It was the most radical of the developments that revolutionized art in the years of unprecedented experimentation leading up to World War I, and it changed the course of painting by introducing a new way of seeing and depicting the world. To the cubists, a painting was first and foremost a flat object that existed in its own right, rather than a kind of window through which a representation of the world is seen. Cubism
1907 -1914 AD Cubism also had a marked, though less fundamental, effect on sculpture, and even influenced architecture and the decorative arts.
Cubism was a complex, gradually evolving phenomenon, but in essence it involved abandoning the single fixed viewpoint that had been the norm in European painting since the Renaissance and instead depicting several different aspects of an object simultaneously. Objects were therefore shown as they are known to be, rather than as they happen to look at a particular moment. In the early days of cubism, this way of representation involved fragmenting objects into facets. Only a handful of Braque's and Picasso's paintings actually use cubelike forms, so cubism is not really an appropriate name. However, the name stuck after being coined facetiously by the critic Louis Vauxcelles in 1908, and it was accepted by the two inventors of the style and their followers. Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of World War I. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The origin of the name Dada is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romanian artists Tristan Tzara and Marcel Janco's frequent use of the words da, da, meaning yes, yes in the Romanian language. Another theory says that the name "Dada" came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French-German dictionary happened to point to 'dada', a French word for 'hobbyhorse‘. Dada
1916 -1922 AD According to Hans Richter, Dada was not art, it was "anti-art.“ Everything for which art stood, Dada represented the opposite. Where art was concerned with traditional aesthetics, Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend. Through their rejection of traditional culture and aesthetics, the Dadaists hoped to destroy traditional culture and aesthetics. Years later, Dada artists described the movement as "a phenomenon bursting forth in the midst of the postwar economic and moral crisis, a savior, a monster, which would lay waste to everything in its path... [It was] a systematic work of destruction and demoralization... In the end it became nothing but an act of sacrilege. The Bauhaus tried to encompass both old and emerging technologies and bring a new approach to everything – from stained glass to advertising, theatre design to packaging, furniture to painting and sculpture. It was the last thoroughgoing attempt to apply a consistent idea to modern living, and we still live with and among its ideas and artefacts. At the time, everyone involved was feeling the way forward. There is a sense here of the genuinely exploratory.
What also strikes me is not the uniformity or rationality of the Bauhaus aesthetic but its richness and diversity, its humour and playfulness, whether actual children's toys were being designed (who would have thought the spinning top would be worthy of Bauhaus attention), or chess sets and coffee machines. But the Bauhaus was not without its zealots and excessiveness, its cranks and quirks. Bauhaus
1920’s -1940’s AD Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artefact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory. Surrealism
1920’s -1940’s AD Abstract Expressionism1945 - 1960 AD
Op Art 1960’s AD
Pop Art 1960’s AD
Conceptual Art 1970’s – 1980’s AD MODERN & POST MODERN
1945 AD - Present The movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism. Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working (mostly) in New York who had quite different styles and even to work that is neither especially abstract nor expressionist. Abstract Expressionism
1945 -1960 AD Op art, also known as optical art, is a style of visual art that makes use of optical illusions.
Op art works are abstract, with many of the better known pieces made in only black and white. When the viewer looks at them, the impression is given of movement, hidden images, flashing and vibration, patterns, or alternatively, of swelling or warping.
Op art is derived from the constructivist practices of the Bauhaus. This German school, founded by Walter Gropius, stressed the relationship of form and function within a framework of analysis and rationality. Students were taught to focus on the overall design, or entire composition, in order to present unified works. When the Bauhaus was forced to close in 1933, many of its instructors fled to the United States where the movement took root in Chicago and eventually at the Black Mountain College in Asheville, North Carolina, where Anni and Josef Albers would come to teach. Op Art
1960’s AD The concept of pop art refers not as much to the art itself as to the attitudes that led to it.
Pop art employs aspects of mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. It is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion upon them. And due to its utilization of found objects and images it is similar to Dada. Pop art is aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture, most often through the use of irony. It is also associated with the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques. Pop Art
1960’s AD “In conceptual art the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art, it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair. The idea becomes a machine that makes the art.”
Solomon "Sol" LeWitt Conceptual Art
1970’s - 1980’s AD History of Art expressing ideas emotions worldview