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AS Psycho Core Studies

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on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of AS Psycho Core Studies

social approach cognitive approach developmental approach physiological approach individual differences psychodynamic perspective: Freud, Thigpen and Cleckley, Bandura behaviourist perspective: Bandura, Milgram, Piliavin Mental concepts change over time and influences behaviour, so children are psychologically different from older humans 1983
to see if children can understand principle of conservation

one question by rose and blank condition avoids confusion

samuel and bryant used 5,6,7 and 8
252 devon boys and girls, 63x 4, 21x3 in each condition

standard condition, two q conservation task
one judgement cond, one q post transformation
fixed array, pre and post no transformation, asked if they were the same (control condition)

mass, volume, number, all together 12 times

lab experiment
age, experimental condition, task
5 year olds made most errors, fewest errors with one question with transformation seen freud 1909
phobia in Austrian boy
case study age 3 to 5 action research, to test the theory of psychosexual development

psychoanalysis by father supporter of freud, sent regular letters
before 3 interest in widdler, showed interest in urination and expelling faeces

when Hans played with it, mother threatened to cut off widdler, causing castration complex, felt resentful about share with father for desired mother, father was rival for her love

questioned by father, expressed he wished mother dropped sister in bath, afraid about being drowned in bath

phobia of horses 4.5 yrs from fall and flail and resemblance with father, white horse with black around mouth

mother said improper to touch his widdler, white horse bite finger, worried widdler cut off if he touched it like women

big giraffe - father, crumpled giraffe - mother, he took away crumpled and sat on it, big giraffe cried out

plumber pushing hans out of bed

plumber cut off front and bottom and replaced with larger ones like fathers

identified with father, overcome oedipus complex as he sees himself as father of children bandura S and B: children go through Piaget's cognitive stages, certain behavior should be seen at certain times
so the ability to conserve (to answer 'the same' indicates whether a child has reached the operational stage. Bandura: children displayed imitative aggression by a social learning process, the behaviour of a model was observed and imitated Freud: early experiences as a child changes mental concepts, Hans seeing a horse fall and flail triggered a phobia Maguire Sperry Dement and Kleitman To investigate between eye movement and dream activity

7 adult males 2 females
lab experiment in sleep lab, avoid alcohol and caffeine, electrodes measure EEG on scalp, slept in darkened room

woken by bell either during REM or Non REM, 5.7 times a night

not told when ps were woken

told to speak into recorder to describe dream content and if between 5 or 15 minutes

90 minute cycles

faster EEG, REM, 80% recall
Non REM 7% recall

Acuurate in estimates of duration

eye movement linked, vertical were climbing ladders and looking up a cliff

horizontal e.g. throwing tomatoes at each other 1968
To understand how two hemispheres function when disconnected

quasi exp. 11 ps undergone commusatory

one eye covered, centred gaze, visual shown to one visual field 1/10 sec

shield from objects

present to left visual, recognise only by same visual field

present to right visual, described and written but not when presented to left

right hemisphere cant speak or write

different info presented to both, $ left ? right ps use left hand to draw left visual field object but speaks object in right visual field, lang centre located in left hemisphere

describe objects in right hand but not left

only select item with hand item originally placed in

right hemisphere can perform variety simple arithmetic and categorising items and spacial awareness Loftus and Palmer

To investigate post event information on participants memory on crash

2x independent measures, lab experiment

exp 1
45 student uni of washington 5 conditions
saw 7 clips, write account and quesstionnaire with critical question
'how fast were the cars going when they smashed collided bumped hit contacted each other'

smashed 40.8 mph, hit 31.8 mph

exp 2
150 ps shown 1 min clip of crash
asked 50 hit, asked 50 smash, asked 50 no q about speed
after 1 week, asked did you see any broken glass, when there was none
16 smashed reported yes, 7 hit, 6 control Baron-Cohen 1997

To see if adults with HF Autism would be impaired on eyes task (testing for theory of mind)

16 HFA adverts (13 men 3 women)in nation autistic society magazine and clinics

50 control of age matched 25 male and 25 females, normal intellgence no psychiatric disorder from uni

10 Tourettes, age matched with groups 1 and 2

quasi, DV performance on eyes task at clinic, home or uni lab

two control tasks of emotion and gender recognition task

all tested on eyes task, concurrent validty testing was Happes Strange stories

standadised 25 photos showed 3 seconds of eye region form magazines, black and white, same size and same region of face, forced choice of opposite mental states (foil word) - calm or anxious
'which word best describes what this person is feeling or thinking?'


HFA impaired on task 16.3/25

normal 20.3/25

Tourettes 20.4/25

Males mormal 18.8/25, female 21.8/25 Savage-Rumbaugh 1986
To compare lang acquisition and usage of two pygmy chimps and common chimps

17 month longitudinal case study at lang research centre Georgia University

Kanzi male 30 and 47 months Common chimps: Austin and Sherman
Mulika 11 and 21 months

geometric symbols Lexigrams presented on comp screen indoors with synthesised speech, outdoors were on pointing board

common chimps not trained, speech accompanied by verbal emphasis

Kanzi showed interest at 6 months, general use of symbols and pressing buttons

food kept in 17 places Able to show people to site food when selected from photo

lexigram recorded auto indoors, when outdoors, recorded by hand then onto computer

utterances as correct or incorrect, spontaneous, imitated or structured. validity of observation checked by comparing 4.5 hours with coding

chimps showed pics and select lexigram
chimps heard spoken word and select pic or lexigram

Kanzi and Mulika used symbols in context first, more likely to imitate to learn, can differentiate between coke and juice where austin nd shermans' uses were broad, k+m understood spoken english A+S not, Kanzi could request All behaviour determined by the inner conflicts of the mind, whether it is conscious or not. 1973 Rosenhan
study 1
To see if individuals presented themselves to a hospital would be diagnosed as insane
psuedo patients of variety of bkgrounds, including Rosenhan, 5 males and 5 females, in 12 hospitals in 5 states

phoned and asked for appointment, in interview reported hearing 'thud' 'empty' 'hollow' everything else same

once admitted, notes written in hospital of experiences

all diagnosed with schz except one, and discharged with schz in remission, demonstrates psychodiagnositic labels

average 19 days, range 7 to 52, made type 2 errors, safer to diagnose sickness than health?

follow up study
to see if bias could be reversed
informed of results, told one or more pseudo would be admitted over three months, but none would

rate all patients on 10 point scale, 1 being high confidence that theyre pseudo

41/193 judged to be by at least 1 , 23/193 by a psychiatrist, type 1 errors made to avoid making type 2 errors

study 3
to investigate contact between staff and patients in psycho hospital

common - short answer without pause and no eye contact

4% psychiatrists stopped to answer questions and 0.5% by nurses
avoidance of contact cause depersonalisation Thigpen and Cleckly 1954
Case study of Eve for severe headaches and blackouts
Hypnotism to help remember recent trip
Letter with final paragraph in different writing, denied by White
Eve Black spoke of White in third person, childish, feminine, care-free
longitudinal, over 100 hours over 14 months, Black later on was able to emerge on request - invovled since child but White had no idea

psychometric teses - white iq 110 and superior memory, black 104 and inferior memory

projective tests show white had repressed hostility and conflicted with roles as mother and wife, Black regress to childish behaviour

8 months into therapy, Jane was a comprimised personality twixt black and white, EEG show Jane and White had same (normal) brain activity and Black was slightly faster(resembling psychotic Griffiths 1994
To compare behaiour of regular and non regular fruit machine gamblers
objective measures of skill
reg gamblers show more irrational verbalisations
reg more skill oriented on subject measures
TA take longer

60 ps mean age 23.4 yrs
advert at uni and college campuses

reg 29 female 1 male, non reg 15 male and 15 female

3 pounds to stay on in amusement arcade fruit machines for at least 60 gambles and breakeven, then choose to keep or continue

half ps in TA condition, rapel microphone recorded, to talk continously whilst playing and not censor anything

reg had higher playing rate 8 to non reg 6 games per minute

reg in TA lower win rate in no. of gambles

verbalisations 14 % by reg gamblers to non 2.5%

skill from post exp. interviews, most reg said there is skill, non reg mostly said due to chance

reg rated above average or totally skilled
non reg rated themselves below average skill Piliavin 1969
if ill person or drunk person gets more help
if same race helping
if intervention of model would influence helping behaviour
if group size influences

field exp. NY subway 4450 unsolicited subjects 11:00 to 15:00 twixt April and June weekdays, 7.5 minutes non stop journey

4 x 4 uni students
70 secs after boarding, victim collapse and lay on back as ill with cane or drunk smelled of alcohol and carry liquor
early model helps after 70s
late model after 150s
no model

covert observation, female observer 1 race, sex, location of passengers in critical, no. of helpers, race,sex and location of helpers and no. total no. in carriage

female observer 2 time help first offered, race, sex and location of adjacent area
both recorded comments of passengers

Cane help 95 % spontaneously while drunk 50%
Ill quicker 5 s average, drunk 109s average

90% first helpers male, 20% of trial 34 people left critical area

the more passengers, the more likely of help, no diffusion of responsibility

arousal:cost-reward model Reicher and Haslam 1969 Assumptions
All behaviour can be learned, unlearned, controlled and altered as it happens through classical conditioning, operant conditioning(reinforcement) or social learning.

Behaviour is nurtured and psychology should investigate the products of learning so only observable behaviour is studied. Strengths Weaknesses Strength
+Action-research therapy - T&K as psychological treatment psychoanalysis contributed to counselling in modern form

+Explains variety of phenomena - Bandura's social learning theory and imitation to model Weaknesses Assumptions
Behaviour occurs within a social context even when there is no one present.

Our behaviour is affected by the social situation e.g the environment we're in, people around us etc and can override our disposition. Milgram Strengths Weaknesses Assumptions
Our mental processes like how we perceive, store and retrieve information influence how we behave.

Loftus&Palmer: leading qs with more severe verb led to more reports of broken glass, shows storage of info can be manipulated by subsequent information

Baron-Cohen: Autism lacking theory of mind not associated with intelligence(IQ)

Savage-Rumbaugh: Language acquisition of Pygmy chimps better than common chimps and mirror human process as they used it spontaneously and responds in absence of cues. Strengths Weaknesses Strengths Weaknesses Milgram:

Piliavin:

Reicher & Haslam: Assumptions Rosenhan:

Thigpen & Cleckley:

Griffiths: Strengths
+Variety of data from range of research methods - T&K EEG IQ memory backs up detailed interviews

+Practical Applications - Rosenhan questions type 2 errors of diagnosis process and validity of mental health diagnosis DSM led to revision Weaknesses
- Subjective - T&K researcher bias may not be valid as unique personality and experiences, not rep cant be generalised

- Ignores individual differences - Griffiths regular gamblers regarded as group, all have different gambling habits may mean results not generalisable Assumptions Sperry:

Dement & Kleitman:

Maguire: Strengths Weaknesses Dement and Kleitman

· Small non-rep. sample

Promote study to different institutions from different places by advertising with posters

More reliability and more data
Time and cost consuming
more generalisable results and representative sample, not ethnocentric



· Low ecological validity

Gain consent to put the EEG machine with electrodes, door bell and a recorder at the participants' home, so they sleep in their own bed at normal times. Instruct them to speak into recorder of the dream content when the are woken by their bell when electrodes detect REM

More ecological validity more valid results
Time and cost consuming for machines
Can’t detect eye movement, no valid result for one of the aims Sperry

* Results not generalisable

Have 50 volunteer epileptic patients without corpus collosum disconnection from a clinical database and 50 volunteer normal people of different backgrounds by posters in the uni, nearby offices etc as well as the 11 epileptic with disconnected corpus collosum patients all do the task

standadise the procedure with the same instructions, same visual stimuli to the visual fields
compare the results and reponses

time consuming, lots of tests
tests establish cause and effect of surgery and epileptic condition
compares behaviour with control group to show differences

* Lack of quali. data
Using open questions, ask participants to describe what they saw instead of to name the object. And after tactile task, ask them how difficult the task was and how the tasks relate to the patients' everyday life.

Less guessing, more valid results with reasons and rich detail into what they see
Linking to real life for split-brain patients, more useful
Time consuming to gather data Savage-Rumbaugh
* Sample not representative of apes
Find a sample of Bonobos, assess their language acquisition using suitable lexigram keyboards and observe their learning and compare the number of imitated, spontaneous and structured utterances to the chimps'
Time consuming
More rep. of ape population
More useful and valid info about lang. acquisition of apes

Not Ethical - humanisation
Not ecologically valid Griffiths

* Not representative sample
50 males and 50 female opportunity regular gamblers at the casino, 50 male and 50 female volunteer sample from nearby supermarkets, parks and take them to the casino. Give all of them the same instructions with 25 male and 25 female in the thinking aloud condition


larger, more rep. sample

more data, more generalisable results, more reliable from the equally proportional male to female

more qualitative data, more recordings to categorise, more cost and time consuming


* not valid data due to demand characteristics

Go to the casino and observe covertly at a fruit machine, use structured observation and tally onto behaviour categories like irrational and rational verbalisations e.g. swearing, personification etc and write down important quotes. Train observers to understand context and agree categories between observers

more ecologically valid with no demand characteristics
more reliable with structured tally charts, easier to analyse, less interpretations
less qualitative data, no reasons behind results
no consent of participants and no right to withdraw, not aware of experiment Rosenhan

* invalid data due to experimenter bias to what they record

Use event sampling and structrued observation, tally onto behaviourial categories each day, like conversation between patient and nurse, foul language by staff etc. Observers should be briefed e.g. tell them a conversation is defined as more than 2 responses exchanged, and they should make sure no one sees their tallying

more inter-rater reliability

predetermined categories, more quantitative data

less bias by pseudopatients

less detail, lack insight and important info that doesn’t fit into a category aren't recorded



* Lack of informed consent

Send in letters to hospitals about pseudo-patients for consent but not staff on wards. Offering hospital the right to refuse participation, with explanation of aims of the study and observation involves staff and patient behaviour

risk of staff on wards knowing about study, demand characteristics and social d. bias leading to invalid/falsified results

hospital withdrawing means less results, not generalisable data

more ethical, given hospital consent and right to withdraw on behalf of the protection of their patients and staff 1)Make it more representative of the population

Get 100 males and women and separate them on age e.g. 21-30, 31-40, 41-50 etc. for both exp (independent measures)

Get a volunteer sample, put flyers up



2)Low in ecological validity

Do a field experiment

Have a staged crash, close a road from cars and get stooges. Get fake policeman to ask them the leading questions using different verbs and ask a number of different people. 1)More experienced drivers – better reliability

More generalisable to the population, can say leading questions affect everyone, useful to society

Volunteer sample, all have similar characteristics





2) More Valid – low demand charac.

less reliable, less standadised

Informed consent, protection of ps, deception

stooges 1)So manipulate the IV using a lab exp. Done by asking someone to become a taxi driver – no/little driving experience. First they would have an initial scan to see the size of the hippocampus. Then they would be controlled of the amount of driving they did and would have to keep a record of all they did. Also they would do the knowledge.






2)Sample isn’t representative include females and left handed ps in the sample. Also different people using spatial navigation in jobs

5 people in each condition, right and left handed male, right and left handed female for each job (taxi driver, pilot and lorry driver) all tgt 60 scans of hippocampus with 50 control of normal people 1)More control over the IV, which meant that cause and effect can be established, so you can see the effect upon the hippocampus and if it is that increased use of spatial navigation or just a natural disposition.

Also, as this would be longitudinal, the researcher could see changes to the hippocampus over time, how it changes.

Time consuming and expensive, low number of ps so can’t be generalised to the whole population, so can’t say for everyone the posterior hippocampus size increases.



2)The sample would be more generalizable and therefore more representative of the whole population, so could see how the hippocampus changes for everyone. Also it would be more 1)Increase the sample size

Be achieved by looking at a clinical database and choose 10 people with MPD
Send letter to fam, tell about study and for consent

more rep sample, generalisable results
contribute to future diagnosis
condition rare, hard to find ps

2)Include independent psychiatrists to watch videos of eve, send quotes of family
Ask for interpretations and suggestions of treatment

less researcher bias, more ojective as they don't have theories to prove

time consuming and very costly for independent psychiatrists

sharing personal info of Eve, confidenciality Improvement 1 - Improve ecological validity

Show participants film clips with characters displaying different emotions
Participants could write down the emotion for each character, standardise length of each clip

+ More ecologically valid as more like real life, use whole face and body to identify emotion

+ More realistic as can use situation to realistically judge characters’ emotions

- Still not ecologically valid as identifying emotions from film clips is not a usual task


Improvement 2 - Collect qualitative data as well as quantitative data

Interview the participants after taking part in the tasks
Ask them open questions about how they found the tasks


+ Rich, in-depth data about adults with Autism and AS

- Time consuming and difficult to compare the qualitative data Improvement 1
Ask for male and female volunteers to take part Advertisements could be done through leaflets and posters on billboards in a range of public areas from unis to offices, select 20 males and 20 females of different backgrounds and from different areas

+ Sample is more representative and generalisable of the population

+ Not ethnocentric

- Would be difficult to obtain the sample

- Time consuming to obtain the sample


Improvement 2
Give participants clear right to withdraw, no prods tell ps if they want to leave to say 'I am not able to continue'

+Make the results more truthful / reliable

+ Study would be ethical, less distress

-Demand characteristics may occur Improvement 1
Add women to the sample, Advertise for men and women to take part in the study through leaflets and posters on billboards, select 15 men and 15 women to become guards / prisoners

+ Sample more representative of the target population

+ Sample wouldn’t be gender bias

- Results may be affected from the attitude of women

- Ethical issues of mixing men and women in prison


Improvement 2
Use speakers to manipulate more variables and create more inequality by controlling e.g. give instructions for punishment and encourage guards to pick on prisoners by pointing out weaknesses

No humiliation of guards, difference in power established, experiment to last without commune

More valid to aim, to investigate conditions that lead to group identity and tyranny Improvement 1Conduct experiment in subways of different countries with different cultures
+ More rep. wider population
+ Not ethnocentric, investigates different cultures

- more reliable
- more expensive and time consuming
- risk more people knowing study, less valid


Improvement 2
State on billboard study by uni to take place with date

+ Gives right to withdraw by avoiding subway
- Demand characteristics as participants wouldn’t behave naturally
- Biased sample, likely to be helpful To see whether children wouldimitate aggressive behaviour when given the opportunity- aggressive model effect on imitative aggressive acts
ivs
1) agressive model v non-aggressive model
2) female v male model
36 boys 36 girls stanford uni nursery usa, age 3 to 5, 12 control, 12 aggressive model, 12 non aggressive model

stage one - encouraged to play with tinker toy set bobo doll etc
- agg condition after 1 min, model acts aggressively to bobo doll, repeat stylised acts for 10 min
- non agg condition ignore bobo doll, play quietly for 10 min
'hit him down' 'he sure is a tough fella'
- control no model

stage two - mild aggression arousal, olayed with attractive toys for two mins but experimenter says 'her very best toys, not just for anyone &stops them

stage three - experimenter observe through one way mirror children playing with toys placed in same place, scored direct imitation, indirect imitation and other aggressive behaviour To investigate what level of obedience shown when ps are told by an authority figure to administer electric shock

lab exp volunteer sample of 40 males from connecticut through newspaper told 'memory and learning' paid $4.50

Fixed lot ps as teacher, given 45v shock, administer increasing shocks for wrong answers, standadised exp prods 'its is essential that you continue'

predicted 1.2% go to 450v but 65% did & all 300v- we dont do what we think

observed sweat, trembling, 'initially poised businessman reduced to twitching, stuttering wreck' - most people do as they are told by authoritive figures despite disposition. To investigate differences in the brain especially in the hippocampi
quasi exp as iv is taxi driver or not
16 right handed male taxi drivers, passed knowledge, at least 18 months based in London
50 MRI scans from database as control group
MRI taken - VBM creates 3D image of brain tissue, Pixel counting measure brain volume

posterior hippocampi of taxi drivers were significantly larger relative to those of control subjects, anterior hippocampi region was larger in control subjects +Scientific Research - Loftus and Palmer lab exp control clips only verb diff in critical question can draw conclusions of cause and effect

+Practical Applications - Baron-Cohen theory of mind extends through childhood, autistic adults have trouble watching films -Mental process not directly observable, not completely scientific - savage-rumbaugh chimps have different vocal box, their thoughts and learning can't be investigated

-Reductionist - Loftus and Palmer ignores social situation, clips low in ecological validity +Field experiments - Reicher and Haslam true prison set up high in ecological validity

+Practical Applications - Reicher and Haslam suggests surveillance in prisons reduce abuses, failure to establish group control leads to tyranny - Field Experiments - Piliavin different real events occuring in NY subway, no control, difficult to replicate so less reliable

- Unethical - Milgram causes distress seen sweating and 'initailly poised businessman reduced to emotional wreck' deception required to observe natural behaviour +Understanding of development - S&B tested age 5 to age 8 found few errors made on conservation by age 8 shows children persuaded by appearance

+Practical Applications - S&B adds to nurture side demonstrating Piaget's stages of development age 4 to 8 as pre-operational stage - Hard to study scientifically - Freud relies on self report subject to demand charac. by father (strong believer in Freud's theories)

- Difficult to find rep pop - Bandura all from nursery, ethnocentric, other cultures' children may behave diff. +Biological science, precise measures with machine - Maguire lab exp objective and reliable VBM 3D and pixel counting for volume

+Practical Application - Sperry right hemisphere can perform variety simple arithmetic and categorising items and spacial awareness - Lab exp reduce ecologically validity - D&K electrodes on scalp, sleep lab doesn't explain natural behaviour

- Specific samples diff to generalise results - Sperry's 11 ps went through surgery to control epilepsy, doesn't show working of normal brain - Unrep. samples - Freud unique individual cases, used Hans as evidence for oedipus complex, single case not rep and results not generalisable

- Unscientific analysis - Freud subject to bias as father is supporter, theories are difficult to test +Scientific - Bandura controlled lab exp saw effect of agg v non agg models

+Practical Applications - Bandura saw effect of violence by model, introduced - Reductionist - Milgram

- Ethical Issues - Piliavin 1) Send letters to parents for informed consent and tell them about the study

+More ethical, consent given on behalf of children
- More time consuming
- May lose participants, smaller sample, less reliable results 2) Use nursery teachers as models

+Higher eco. valid. more realistic setting, behaviour natural

+More valid results produced can be related to real life models

-Long term distress to teacher, less ethical 1) Obtain sample from a wide range of area, bkgrounds - send invites to schools in the UK and
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