Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Freedom from Fear & Distress

No description
by

Carrie Ijichi

on 8 January 2019

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Freedom from Fear & Distress

The Fear Response
Fear has three components:
Effect
of Fear
Whilst
adaptive
in many situations,
sudden
,
unpredictable
,
intense
,
prolonged
or
inescapable
fear has a significant impact on
biological functioning
Problems
Repeated exposure to fear increases the
likelihood
and
intensity
of a future fear response
Solutions
Avoid exposing animals to fear inducing stimuli through:
Freedom from
Fear & Distress

Next time we will be...
Learning Outcomes
Judge the effectiveness of current national & international legislation regulating animal welfare
Evaluate the causal factors for, and solutions to, welfare issues within animal housing systems
Aims
Define fear & its effects on animals
Look at sources of fear & solutions to minimise this
Defining Fear & Distress
Fear
=
A response to the perception of
actual
danger
Anxiety
, a closely related feeling, is a reaction to a
potential
, but as yet
unreal
, threat
Boissy (1998)
This is the only Freedom
solely
concerned with the
emotions
of the animal and is based on our appreciation that many animals are
sentient
and capable of
suffering
Give me examples of species that this freedom doesn't relate to and explain why this is the case
the
emotional
experience (what one feels)
the
neurophysiological response
Whilst we can't know how the animal feels, we can explore their behavioural & physiological
responses
Physiological
Responses
Sources of Fear
This will vary within species...
Name a group of animals most susceptible to fear and explain why this might be
Prey Species
Non-Prey
Fear eliciting properties are related to characteristics such as:
novelty
movement patterns
intensity
duration
suddenness
proximity
context
darkness
Are most likely to be sensitive to fear eliciting stimuli because there is an
adaptive fitness
consequence to them responding to threat quickly & effectively
Fear disrupts normal behaviour with
important
functions

Parental Care
Feeding & Drinking
Grooming
Rest
Physiological
Changes
Behavioural
Changes
Prolonged fear also disrupts normal physiological function in several ways:
Stunted growth
Reduced fertility/reproduction
Suppressed Immune
Response
Weight Loss
Handling Stress
Loading/transport
Stockmanship
Predator presence
Non-prey animals still require an adaptive fear response which it often based on novelty & experience
Factors likely to induce fear responses include:
Developing in a
barren environment
Being attacked
Transport
Conditioned place
association
Young animals
Species Interactions
Fear responses prepare the body for action, typically seen as a
startle
or
flight
response
Talk me through how each of these physiological responses increases the chance of survival
Behavioural
Responses
Behaviour that communicates fear to others
Facial expression
Calls
Posture changes
Behaviour that protects the animal from the threat
Flight
Fight
Freeze
Cognitive Changes
Cognitive bias measures our propensity to view
neutral stimuli
as either
negative
or
positive
This relates to our sensitivity to
potential threat
Those with a pessimistic bias are more likely to interpret a
neutral
event as
threatening
If animals are exposed to regular fear,
they become more
pessimistic
and
sensitive
to
potential threat
Successful escape attempts are extremely reinforcing as animals are highly motivated to avoid fear inducing stimuli
Fear responses are typically either innate or "one trial learning" and are not subject to the same extinction as other learned responses
This can make the resolution of fear inducing situations
very difficult
Considerate design of
housing
,
transport
&
slaughter houses
etc
The use of sedating or anxiolytic drugs in preparation for unavoidable fear inducing situation
Habituating animals to procedures and experiences they are likely to find frightening
Careful use of counter-conditioning or over-shadowing techniques to re-train an animal that has established a fear response
Recommended Reading...
"Animal Welfare" Appleby
et al.
(2011)
Chapter 6
Experienced, calm & patient handling from carers, technicians and farmers
Talk me through how these responses protect the animal
Describe to me how disrupting each of these functions will affect the animal
Duncan (2006)
(Gray, 1987)
HPA axis
Jones & Waddington (1992); Jones (1997); Faure
et al
. (2003)
(Harding & Mendl, 2004)
(Delgado et al, 2006)
Distress
is a state when stress
exceeds
an individual's ability to cope
Week 5: Looking at Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour

Next Week: Study Week
(no lectures but self-directed study set instead: 3 hours)

Read recommended chapter below and complete Socrative Quiz 1 & 2
Summary
Quiz
References
Sources of Fear
Sources of Fear
the
behavioural expression
Defined
fear
and
distress


Sources
of fear in
prey

and
non prey
species

Looked at how fear
affects
animals (
physiological, behavioural
and
cognitive responses
)

Problems

Solutions
Test your learning!

Have a go at the quiz for discomfort and fear and distress

https://b.socrative.com/login/student/

Room Code: hxji8sij

Boissy, A. (1998) Fear and fearfulness in determining behavior.
Genetics and the behavior of domestic animals.

Delgado, M.R., Olsson, A. and Phelps, E.A. (2006) Extending animal models of fear conditioning to humans.
Biological psychology
, 73(1), pp.39-48.

Duncan, I.J. (2006) The changing concept of animal sentience.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science
, 100(1-2), pp.11-19.

Gray, J.A. (1987)
The psychology of fear and stress
(Vol. 5). CUP Archive.

Harding, E.J., Paul, E.S. and Mendl, M. (2004) Animal behaviour: cognitive bias and affective state.
Nature
, 427(6972), p.312.

Jones, R.B. and Waddington, D. (1992) Modification of fear in domestic chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, via regular handling and early environmental enrichment.
Animal Behaviour
, 43(6), pp.1021-1033.

Jones, R.B. (1997)
Fear and distress.

Faure, J.M., Val-Laillet, D., Guy, G., Bernadet, M.D. and Guémené, D. (2003) Fear and stress reactions in two species of duck and their hybrid.
Hormones and Behavior
, 43(5), pp.568-572.

So what is the adaptive function of fear?
Week 3: Session 2
Sienna Taylor

The animal removes the threat
The animal removes itself from the threat
The animal remains immobile so threat doesn't detect it
Full transcript