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Freedom from Fear & Distress

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by

Carrie Ijichi

on 16 March 2016

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Transcript of Freedom from Fear & Distress

The Fear Response
Fear has three components:
Effect
of Fear
Whilst
adaptive
in many situations,
sudden
,
unpredictable
,
intense
,
prolonged
or
inescapable
fear has a significant impact on
biological functioning
Problems
Repeated exposure to fear increases the likelihood and intensity of a future fear response
Solutions
Avoid exposing animals to fear inducing stimuli at all costs through:
Freedom from
Fear & Distress

Last week we...
Looked at Freedom from Pain, Injury & Disease, followed by Freedom From Discomfort
Identified issues in interpreting & implementing these freedoms
Looked at sources of pain, disease & discomfort that are typically neglected and more difficult to resolve
Explored some solutions to these problems
Next week we will be...
Learning Outcomes
Judge the effectiveness of current national & international legislation regulating animal welfare
Evaluate the causal factors for, and solutions to, welfare issues within animal housing systems
Aims
Define fear & its effects on animals
Look at sources of fear & solutions to minimise this
Defining Fear & Distress
A response to the perception of
actual danger
Anxiety, a closely related feeling, is a reaction to a
potential
, but as yet
unreal
, threat
(Boissy, 1998)
This is the only Freedom
solely
concerned with the
emotions
of the animal and is based on our appreciation that many animals are
sentient
and capable of
suffering
Give me examples of species that this freedom doesn't relate to and explain why this is the case
the internal
emotional experience
the
neurophysical response
the
behavioural expression
of these internal states
Whilst we can't know how the animal feel, we can explore their behavioural & physiological
responses
Physiological
Responses
Sources of Fear
This will vary within species...
Name a group of animals most susceptible to fear and explain why this might be
Prey Species
Non-Prey
Fear eliciting properties are related to characteristics such as:
novelty
movement patterns
intensity
duration
suddenness
proximity
context
darkness
Are most likely to be sensitive to fear eliciting stimuli because there is an
adaptive fitness
consequence to them responding to threat quickly & effectively
It disrupts normal behaviour with
important
functions

Parental Care
Feeding & Drinking
Grooming
Rest
Physiological
Changes
Behavioural
Changes
Prolonged fear also disrupts normal physiological function in several ways:
Stunted growth
Reduced fertility/reproduction
Suppressed Immune
Response
Weight Loss
Handling Stress
Loading/transport
Stockmanship
Predator presence
Non-prey animals still require an adaptive fear response which it often based on novelty & experience
Factors likely to induce fear responses include:
Developing in a
barren environment
Being attacked
Transport
Conditioned place
association
Young animals
Species Interactions
Fear responses prepare the body for action, typically seen as a
startle
or
flight
response
Talk me through how each of these actions increases the chance of survival
Behavioural
Responses
Behaviour that communicates fear to others
Facial expression
Calls
Posture changes
Behaviour that protects the animal from the threat
Flight
Fight
Freeze
Cognitive Changes
Cognitive bias measures our propensity to view
neutral stimuli
as either
negative
or
positive
This relates to our sensitivity to
potential threat
Those with a pessimistic bias are more likely to interpret an
neutral
event as
threatening
If animals are exposed to regular fear,
they become more
pessimistic
and
sensitive
to
potential threat
Successful escape attempts are extremely reinforcing as animals are highly motivated to avoid fear inducing stimuli
Fear responses are typically either innate or "one trial learning" and are not subject to the same extinction as other learned responses
This can make the resolution of fear inducing situations
very difficult
Considerate design of housing, transport & slaughter houses etc
The use of sedating or anxiolytic drugs in preparation for unavoidable fear inducing situation
Habituating animals to procedures and experiences they are likely to find frightening
Careful use of counter-conditioning or over-shadowing techniques to re-train an animal that has established a fear response
Recommended Reading...
"Animal Welfare" Appleby et al 2011
Chapter 6
Experienced, calm & patient handling from carers, technicians and farmers
Talk me through how these responses protect the animal
Describe to me how disrupting each of these functions will affect the animal
Describe to me how prolonged fear affects these functions
Duncan, 2006
(Gray 1987)
(Dantzer 1988)
HPA axis
Jones & Waddington, 1992; Jones, 1997; Faure et al 2003)
(Harding & Mendl, 2004)
(Delgado et al, 2006)
Distress is a state when stress exceeds an individual's ability to cope
Looking at Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour
Socrative test to assess today's and next weeks material
Full transcript