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Freedom from Fear & Distress
Transcript of Freedom from Fear & Distress
Fear has three components:
in many situations,
fear has a significant impact on
Repeated exposure to fear increases the
of a future fear response
Avoid exposing animals to fear inducing stimuli through:
Fear & Distress
Next time we will be...
Judge the effectiveness of current national & international legislation regulating animal welfare
Evaluate the causal factors for, and solutions to, welfare issues within animal housing systems
Define fear & its effects on animals
Look at sources of fear & solutions to minimise this
Defining Fear & Distress
A response to the perception of
, a closely related feeling, is a reaction to a
, but as yet
This is the only Freedom
concerned with the
of the animal and is based on our appreciation that many animals are
and capable of
Give me examples of species that this freedom doesn't relate to and explain why this is the case
experience (what one feels)
Whilst we can't know how the animal feels, we can explore their behavioural & physiological
Sources of Fear
This will vary within species...
Name a group of animals most susceptible to fear and explain why this might be
Fear eliciting properties are related to characteristics such as:
Are most likely to be sensitive to fear eliciting stimuli because there is an
consequence to them responding to threat quickly & effectively
Fear disrupts normal behaviour with
Feeding & Drinking
Prolonged fear also disrupts normal physiological function in several ways:
Non-prey animals still require an adaptive fear response which it often based on novelty & experience
Factors likely to induce fear responses include:
Developing in a
Fear responses prepare the body for action, typically seen as a
Talk me through how each of these physiological responses increases the chance of survival
Behaviour that communicates fear to others
Behaviour that protects the animal from the threat
Cognitive bias measures our propensity to view
This relates to our sensitivity to
Those with a pessimistic bias are more likely to interpret a
If animals are exposed to regular fear,
they become more
Successful escape attempts are extremely reinforcing as animals are highly motivated to avoid fear inducing stimuli
Fear responses are typically either innate or "one trial learning" and are not subject to the same extinction as other learned responses
This can make the resolution of fear inducing situations
Considerate design of
The use of sedating or anxiolytic drugs in preparation for unavoidable fear inducing situation
Habituating animals to procedures and experiences they are likely to find frightening
Careful use of counter-conditioning or over-shadowing techniques to re-train an animal that has established a fear response
"Animal Welfare" Appleby
Experienced, calm & patient handling from carers, technicians and farmers
Talk me through how these responses protect the animal
Describe to me how disrupting each of these functions will affect the animal
Jones & Waddington (1992); Jones (1997); Faure
(Harding & Mendl, 2004)
(Delgado et al, 2006)
is a state when stress
an individual's ability to cope
Week 5: Looking at Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour
Next Week: Study Week
(no lectures but self-directed study set instead: 3 hours)
Read recommended chapter below and complete Socrative Quiz 1 & 2
Sources of Fear
Sources of Fear
of fear in
Looked at how fear
Test your learning!
Have a go at the quiz for discomfort and fear and distress
Room Code: hxji8sij
Boissy, A. (1998) Fear and fearfulness in determining behavior.
Genetics and the behavior of domestic animals.
Delgado, M.R., Olsson, A. and Phelps, E.A. (2006) Extending animal models of fear conditioning to humans.
, 73(1), pp.39-48.
Duncan, I.J. (2006) The changing concept of animal sentience.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science
, 100(1-2), pp.11-19.
Gray, J.A. (1987)
The psychology of fear and stress
(Vol. 5). CUP Archive.
Harding, E.J., Paul, E.S. and Mendl, M. (2004) Animal behaviour: cognitive bias and affective state.
, 427(6972), p.312.
Jones, R.B. and Waddington, D. (1992) Modification of fear in domestic chicks, Gallus gallus domesticus, via regular handling and early environmental enrichment.
, 43(6), pp.1021-1033.
Jones, R.B. (1997)
Fear and distress.
Faure, J.M., Val-Laillet, D., Guy, G., Bernadet, M.D. and Guémené, D. (2003) Fear and stress reactions in two species of duck and their hybrid.
Hormones and Behavior
, 43(5), pp.568-572.
So what is the adaptive function of fear?
Week 3: Session 2
The animal removes the threat
The animal removes itself from the threat
The animal remains immobile so threat doesn't detect it