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Rome 2B

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Luisella Ciambezi

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of Rome 2B

The water flows from the other six points:
two sculptures in the shape of the sun with a
human face, throwing water into the basins
inside the boat also has four circular holes facing
outward, similar to the mouths of cannon.

The Fontana della Barcaccia is a Baroque fresh-water
fountain in Piazza di Spagna in Rome, just below
the Spanish steps. It is so named because it is in the
shape of a half-sunken ship withwater overflowing its bows.
The fountain was commissioned by Pope Urban VIII and was
completed in 1627 by Pietro Bernini and his
son Gian Lorenzo Bernini.


Bernini designed the fountain shaped like a sinking boat in an oval tub placed slightly below street level, with the bowand stern, raised just above the level of the pelvis. At the centre of the boat there is a baluster supporting a small tub, from which comes out a gush of water that falls inside the boat to escape then from the side edges and flared bass, into the basin below.

This Fortress was built as a mausoleum for the Emperor Hadrian (a.C.130-139), but it has also been a prison and a papal residence. It was used by former Popes who absconded there for protection in times of danger. There has been a covered passageway which still connects Castel Sant'Angelo to the Vatican.
Rome 2B
This church was built on the ruins of a Roman temple dedicated to the goddess Minerva. The built has been renovated and modified many times during his history. For example, there is the Renaissance-style facade, that is created in 1453, or the chapels were added in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the interior is Neogothic style. The church's design is attributed to 2 frairs, Fra Sisto Fiorentino & Fra Ristoro da Campi. The Dominicans, called by Inquisition Domini Canes, were a powerful order, with the Jesuits. In 1633 Santa Maria sopra Minerva became the theater of the Galileo's refusal of his theorem that says the Earth revolves around the Sun. 359 years later the Church apologized with the scientist, but it's too late. The mistake is already remembered by lay people.
One of many beautiful squares in the city, the Quirinal Square is located near the palace of the same name , Home of the president of Italy.
One of the beautiful squares in the city of Rome is the Quirinal Square which sit atop the Quirinal Hill, the highest of the seven hills of Rome. From this high point you have a wonderful view towards the Saint Peter's Basilica. Also impressive is the Dioscuri Fountain in the square, with the 14-metre high obelisk and the 6-metre high horse tamers Castor and Pollux.

St.Peter's Square
The Pope Alexander VII commissioned sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini to create a new square in front of the St.Peter's Basilica. Bernini came up with an elliptical shaped square 240 meters wide and 196 meters long. Construction of the square started in 1656 and was completed in 1667.
St. Peter's Square is bordered on two sides by semi-circular colonnades which symbolize the arms of the church embracing the world. The colonnades were built in 1660 and consist of four rows of Doric columns.
The columns are 20 meters high and 1.6 meters wide. 140 statues were installed on top of the colonnades, all created by Bernini and his students. They represent religious figures.
In the center of the square stands an egyptian obelisk, 25.5 meters tall. The obelisk was originally located at Heliopolis in Egypt. In 37 A.D. Caligula decided to transport the obelisk to Rome with a specially constructed ship.
But it was Pope Sixtus to decide that the obelisk had to be moved in front of the St. Peter's Basilica. The relocation was a daunting task and even Michelangelo considered it impossible. Sixtus however commissioned Domenico Fontana with the transportation.

The Roman Pantheon is the most preserved and influential building of ancient Rome and it is in Round's Square. That is a Roman temple dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome.

The emperor Hadrian (A.D 117-138) built the Pantheon.
Unfortunaly the architect of the Pantheon is unknown.
The Pantheon has been much change over the century. For example it was converted from temple to church.
"Marco Agrippa, son of Lucio, having been consul three times made"
" the temple of all the gods"
At the center of the Pantheon, we find a wonderful and famous
which enter the light that illuminates the interior of the building

Saint Angel Castle
At the top of the fortress stands a statue of an angel. The statue depicts the archangel Michael who, according to legend, appeared on top of the fortress in the year 590. After the purported event, the building was renamed Castel Sant'Angelo in honor of the archangel.
Castel Sant'Angelo was originally built by Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum and housed the remains of Hadrian and his successors up to Caracalla. Its design was inspired by that of the Mausoleum of Augustus, built a century earlier.
During the construction of the Aurelian Wall, Hadrian's mausoleum was fortified and incorporated in the defensive wall around Rome. in 1277 it was acquired by the papacy who used the building as a refuge in case of danger. A secret corridor connects Castel Sant'Angelo with the Vatican
Located at the confluence of several busy Roman streets, Barberini Square takes its name from Barberini’s Palace that is in front of it. One of the Barberini sons became pope with the name of Urban VIII and commissioned the Triton Fountain, placed in the square center and made by the famous sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1643.
Located at the confluence of several busy Roman streets, Barberini Square takes its name from Barberini’s Palace that is in front of it.
One of the Barberini sons became pope with the name of Urban VIII and commissioned the Triton Fountain, placed in the square centre and made by the famous sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1643.

Ara Pacis
The Ara Pacis ( Altar of Augustan Peace ) is an altar dedicated by Augustus in 9 BC , and originally placed in an area of Campo Marzio
On the right Enea dress priest who bids on a rustic altar.Instead on the left two young who one is holding a pitcher and a dish while the other young brings a sow to sacrifice
Pope Pius VI decide to erect obelisk between the "horse tamers" in the Quirinal Square . It took 4 years for restoration of 3-piece obelisk and erected in 1786 .
The large water bowl was placed in 19Th Century.
Spirals plant
Build in Rome in the Campo Marzio ,went partially dipersed and several museums it preserved fragments.In 1938 the Ara Pacis was recostituted almost completely,after long and laborious research in Italy and a laborious excavation campaigns in Rome.
Outside decoration is divided into two bands separated by a meander:at the bottom there is a large flower arrangement,above depicts figurative scenes.
Changing of the guard
piazza del popolo
Inside of the church there are three naves by massive pillars with a transept and deep apse. Along the walls and the ceiling of the church there are painting frescoes in neo-gothic style, dating from the 19 century.
Among the most important artworks there are the tomb of St.Catherine from Siena, which is under an altar and a sculpture of Michelangelo called "Christ the Bearer of the cross".

The building was originally designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini for the young Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi, nephew of Pope Gregory XV. However, with the death of Gregory XV by 1623, work stopped, and was not restarted until the papacy of Pope Innocent XII (Antonio Pignatelli), when it was completed by the architect Carlo Fontana, who modified Bernini's plan with the addition of a bell gable above the main entrance. The building was designated for public and social functions only due to Innocent XII's firm antinepotism policies which were in contrast to his predecessors.
With the Unification of Italy in 1861 and the transfer of the capital to Rome in 1870, Montecitorio was chosen as the seat of the Chamber of Deputies, after consideration of various possibilities. The former internal courtyard was roofed over and converted into a semi-circular assembly room.
The excavated obelisk of the Solarium Augusti, now known as the Obelisk of Montecitorio, was installed in front of the palace by Pius VI in 1789
The Arch
The large arch with three archways is almost 26 meters (85ft) wide and 21 meters (69ft) high. During construction, many parts from older structures were reused, which was common practice at the time.
The statues at the top were taken from the Forum of Trajan.
The relief panels between the statues were created for Marcus Aurelius
The decorations on the central and lower part were created specifically for this triumphal arch.
Emperor Constantine
Constantine believed that his improbable victory over Maxentius was the result of the help of the Christian god. As a result, during Constantine's reign persecution of Christians ended and Christianity became the official religion in the Roman Empire. He also moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Constantinople in 325 AD (before known as Byzantium, now Istanbul).
The theme of composition is the sea. The central figure of the fountain is Neptune. He rides a chariot that is pulled by two sea horses. Each sea horse is guided by a Triton. On either side, two panels in bas-relief depicting Agrippa and "virgin".
During the first day in Rome, we have seen several important monuments, including the wonderful Victor Emmanuel II Monument.
In 1878 he Italian Parliament decided to dedicate a national monument to the newly deceased king Victor Emmanuel II.
Having banished two internetional competitions (1880 and 1882) , was chosen the project presented by Giuseppe Sacconi.
The young architect, on the model of the great shrines of the classical age, had conceived the space as a stage performance that celebrated the center of imperial Rome, the Italian renaissance.
The architectural structure of the monument was developed as an ideal path through the stairways and terraces, enriched by the different groups of sculptures and bas-reliefs of the central Altar of the Fatherland, is it raised to the Temples side and from these the grand Portico Colonnade, allegories of Unity Fatherland and Freedom. Although started in 1885, the work proceeded slowly and the project was continuously changed.
Between 1885 and 1910, for a better view of the monument was moved to the Venice Palace and the Church of Santa Rita.
On the death of Sacconi, in 1905, the work was directed by architects Gaetano Koch, Manfredo Manfredi and Pio Piacentini.
Between 1924 and 1927 on the Propylaea were positioned the Quadriga of Unity, by Carlo Fontana, and the Quadriga of Freedom, by Paolo Bartolini. Only in 1935, however, the work could e considered concluded.

Victor Emmanuel II Monument
The land where the cathedral church of Rome sits was once occupied by the estate of the Laterani family. A first basilica was built in 314, at the site of the former stables of Emperor Septimius Severus, right next to the Lateran Palace. It was consecrated ten years later by Pope Sylvester I. The basilica has five naves divided by massive columns that support large arches. The twelve niches that Borromini created in the columns of the main nave hold colossal marble statues of the Apostles. They were designed by a variety of prominent Rococo and Baroque sculptors. The architect of this church was Francesco Borromini and the church it was designed in 1735 by Alessandro Galilei.

The fountain, for many people one of the most beautiful of Rome, was built in travertine. On it four fish hold an open clam on which a Triton sits, blowing water from his horn. The fountain shows, between the tails of four dolphins that support the triton, two coats of arms of Barberini.
An additional Bernini fountain can be found near the Square Barberini, on the Vittorio Veneto’s corner. Entitled Fountain of the Bees, this small fountain was built in 1644 as a tribute to pope Urban VIII. The fountain shows large bees, symbol of the Barberini family, and a clam-like structure, on which appears the name of Urban VIII and a Latin message stating the fountain's water is for use of the public and the animals.

Already in the fifteenth century a small Trevi Fountain was built. In 1732, pope Clement XII commissioned Nicola Salvi to create a large fountain at the Trevi Square to replace the existing fountain. A previous firm to build the fountain designed by Bernini was halted a century earlier. Salvi based his masterwork on this project. He never saw his monumental baroque fountain completed because it was inaugurated only in 1762, eleven years after that Salvi died.

Aqua Virgo
The Trevi Fountain is situated at the end of the Aqua Virgo, an aqueduct constructed in 19 A.C. by Agrippa,
the son of Emperor Augustus.
The aqueduct brings water the fountains in the historic center of Rome.
In the church there are 12 apostles:
San Pietro,Sant'Andrea, San Giovanni, San Giacomo Minore, San Bartolomeo, San Simone, San Giuda Taddeo, San Matteo, San Filippo, San Tommaso, San Giacomo Maggiore, San Paolo.
Right next to the Colosseum there is the Arch of Constantine, erected in the early fourth century to celebrate the victory of Constantine over Emperor Maxentius. The arch, decorated with statues and reliefs, has survived the times relatively unscathed.The Arch of Constantine is the most recent of the three remaining imperial triumphal arches in Rome.
Constantine's Victory
After years of civil war, the victory of Constantine's army over the numerically superior army of Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312 AD finally brought some peace to the Roman Empire. To commemorate this memorable victory, the Senate of Rome awarded Constantine a triumphal arch. It was dedicated just a few years later, in 315 AD.
Route of Aqua Virgo
The Trevi fountain is the most famous and the most beautiful fountain in all of Rome. This impressive monument dominates the Trevi Square located in the Quirinale district.
Trevi fountain
In the Catholic Church the name John is up to key characters: John the Baptist, the greatest of the prophets, and the Apostle John, the most famous evangelist and beloved disciple of Christ. The statues were been worked by sculptors Bernini school like Rusconi and Le Gros; to draw them most was instead Carlo Maratta. All are present twelve apostles:
San Pietro,Sant'Andrea, San Giovanni, San Giacomo Minore, San Bartolomeo, San Simone, San Giuda Taddeo, San Matteo, San Filippo, San Tommaso, San Giacomo Maggiore, San Paolo.
The main attraction of Piazza Navona is the fountain of fours rivers, that is the central and the largest fountain. It was constructed between 1647 and 1651.
The designer of the fountain was first commissioned to Borromini, but it was ultimately handed to Bernini.
The fountain features four figures, each representing a river from different continent: the Nile, Ganges, Danube and Rio de la Plata. The statue are the base of a rock supporting an obelisk.
The fountain depicts seven animals: the lion, the crocodile, the sea snake, the horse, the snake of land, the dolphin and the dragon

The Trajan's Column
The column of Trajan was erected in 113 AD in honor of Emperor Trajan.
The column commemorates Trajan's victories in Dacia.
The column, including its base, is forty-two meters tall.
The column is located at Trajan's Forum, part of the Imperial Forum.

there are more than two thousand carved figures on the column that depict the story of Trajan's Dacias war campaigns conducted between 101-102 and 105-106 AD.
The story starts with soldiers preparing for the war and ends with the Dacias being ousted from their homeland.
Initially, a statue of an eagle topped the column,but after Trajan's death it was replaced by a six meter tall statue of the emperor himself.
In 1587 the statue was replaced again, this time by one of St. Peter.
On June 4, 1911, for the International Exhibition for the fiftieth anniversary of the Unification of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III inaugurated the magnificent bronze equestrian statue.

In 1921, in the crypt designed by Armando Brasini, was buried the remains of the Unknown Soldier.
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