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Transcript of cells
By: Sofia Marques
The cell is the basic unit of life. A cell wall is only found in a plant cell. It is a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure. The cell wall also bonds with other cell walls to form the structure of the plant.
The First Cell
Robert Hooke was the first to ever make a microscope. The microscope opened up smaller worlds, showing what living forms were composed of. Hooke looked at slices of cork, and saw what actually looked like the small rooms that monks live in. Thus he named it a cell. He was actually seeing the cell wall of a dead plant cell. Three german scientists came later with more sophisticated microscopes. Mattheis Schleiden studied plants and said that all plants have cells. Theodor Schwann studied animals and said all animal and animal parts are made of cells. Lastly, Rudolf Virchow was a doctor who said all living things have cells. These scientists all contributed to the cell theory.
animal cell vs plant cell
The cell membrane is careful with what it lets in!
A cell wall is only found in plants.
As you travel through the cell membrane and enter the cell, you will find yourself floating in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is a jelly-like substance, that helps to hold the cell's organelles in place. It also helps the cell move proteins, chromosomes and other materials, including the cells organelles, around the cell. The cytoplasm is in both animal and plant cells.
Found in both plant and animal cells, is the endoplasmic reticulum, which is clear tubes that travel throughout all parts of the cell. They travel to different organelles. Throughout the cell, the endoplasmic reticulum carries materials where they need to go. It also makes lipids, breaks down drugs and other substances, and packages up proteins to release from the cell.
Found in both plant and animal cells, the cell membrane is the outside wall of a cell. In plant cells, it is the second wall. The cell membrane keeps the cytoplasm inside and it allows nutrients in and waste products out. The cell membrane in an animal cell has a chemical in it, which makes the membrane harder. That is why the cell membrane is harder in an animal cell than in a plant cell.
As you travel along the endoplasmic reticulum, you will notice that stuck to the sides of the endoplasmic reticulum are several small balls called ribosomes. Ribosomes use available materials to build proteins. These proteins can then be used by the cell for other purposes, such as to build new structures, repair damage, and direct chemical reactions. These are found in the plant cell and in the animal cell.
As you travel through the endoplasmic reticulum, look out into the cytoplasm. You will see small round objects called lysosomes. Lysosomes are filled with enzymes that are used to break up and partially digest food. The food particles are broken up into smaller pieces, which can then be passed on to another organelle called mitochondria. Lysosomes are only in animal cells.
The organelle responsible for energy production inside a cell is called a mitochondrion. The mitochondrion is a pill shaped organelle that is found in both plant and animal cells. The mitochondrion takes food and breaks it apart into water and carbon dioxide, to make ATP.
The Golgi complex is responsible for taking the proteins which were created by the ribosomes and making them bigger and better. It also processes and transports materials out of the cell.
Vacuoles are small sacs that are filled with food and water. They are used by cells as storage tanks. They are found in both plant and animal cells. A vacuole stores water and other materials that the cell needs.
A chloroplast is a small pill-shaped organelle found only in plants. Chloroplasts are green because they are filled with a green chemical called chlorophyll, which makes plants green. Chlorophyll is used by a plant to capture energy from the sun, which can later be used to create food.
A cell's nucleus is surrounded by a thin wall, or membrane. This membrane is called the nuclear membrane, and protects the nucleus from outside dangers. Just like the cellular membrane, the nuclear membrane also has many small openings which allow things to come in and out.
The nucleus is the brain for the cell. It is responsible for directing the activities of the cell. The nucleus is in both plant and animal cells.
The word nucleolus means little nucleus. It is believed that the nucleolus is where a cell creates ribosomes. There is a nucleolus in both plant and animal cells.