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RUNWAY INCURSION

Embraer
by

Lior Fischer-Livneh

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of RUNWAY INCURSION

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Images from Shutterstock.com PURPOSE FOCUS The development and use of mitigation procedures that will avoid a runway incursion and enhance safe taxi operations. PURPOSE
FOCUS
RELATED READING MATERIAL
BACKGROUND
USE OF SOP
FLIGHT CREW PROCEDURES
SUMMARY BACKGROUND FLIGHT CREW PROCEDURES
DURING TAXI OPERATIONS ARKIA EMBRAER FLEET Based on FAA AC 120-74B RUNWAY INCURSION
Taxi operations require planning, SA, written taxi instructions, CRM, ATC communications, taxiing, and the use of exterior lighting. Safe aircraft operations can be accomplished and incidents eliminated if flight crews are properly trained and correctly accomplish standard taxi operating procedures and good practices. SUMMARY Pilots are cautioned not to rely solely on the status of an aircraft’s lights to determine the intentions of the pilot(s) of the other aircraft.

CAUTION: Flight crews should consider any adverse effects to safety that illuminating the forward-facing lights will have on the vision of other pilots or ground personnel during runway crossings. Lighting 5) Any time a pilot is uncertain of his/her location on the airport or during taxi, do not stop on a runway. Remember that runways have white, segmented center lines, whereas taxiways have continuous, yellow center lines. Stop the aircraft and immediately advise ATC, if necessary, to request progressive taxi.

(6) When cleared to take off or to cross a runway, or when exiting a runway, the pilot should do so in a timely manner, and if the pilot cannot safely exit the landing runway via an exit taxiway, never exit the landing runway onto another runway without ATC clearance. Also, ATC should be informed of any anticipated delay for takeoff or, of exiting a runway. Taxi…Cont. (3) When taxiing, pilots must remember that the tower may lose communication capability at any time. Therefore, pilots should scan the tower as they taxi, and, if able, also monitor guard frequency 121.5 when taxiing or on a runway with an LUAW clearance, to ensure that they do not miss any tower communications.

(4) Low visibility conditions increase the risk of a runway incursion. During low visibility conditions, all resources available should be used during taxi. These resources include the airport diagram, the heading indicators, airport signs, markings, and lighting. These resources help keep the aircraft on its assigned taxi route, and not crossing any runway hold lines without clearance. Therefore, it is extremely important that pilots perform all heads-down tasks (e.g., programming the FMS, and calculating takeoff data) while the aircraft is stopped so they can maintain outside vigilance and SA. Taxi…Cont.
(1) Prior to taxiing, a current copy of the airport diagram should be available for use by the pilot. Review the taxi route and identify all airport-designated hot spots that are in or near the taxi route. The aircraft’s compass or heading display is an excellent tool, as a supplement to visual orientation, for confirming correct taxiway or runway alignment. It should be referred to as frequently as necessary, but especially at complex intersections and where the takeoff ends of two runways are close to one another.


(2) Pilots should complete all aircraft pretaxi checklist items and navigation data entry prior to taxi. So as not to distract from maintaining outside taxi vigilance, limit or eliminate all non-ATC communications. When approaching an entrance to a runway, pilots must be clear as to their clearance to either hold short of, cross, or enter the runway. If there is any doubt, the pilots should verify their clearance with ATC. Taxi…Cont. CAUTION: Exercise increased awareness when taxiing in between active parallel runways.

ATC should be contacted anytime there is a concern about a potential conflict.

Heads-down time should only take place when the aircraft is taxiing straight ahead or stopped, or after it has landed and is clear of the active runway, with no upcoming hold short lines or hot spots. Taxi (1) Flight crews should use standard ATC phraseology at all times in order to facilitate clear and concise ATC/flight crew communications. Be aware of the need for complete understanding of accents, terminology, and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) procedures while operating at foreign airports.

(2) State your position whenever making initial contact with any tower or ground controller, regardless of whether your position was previously stated to a different controller.


(3) Focus on the ATC clearance. Pilots should not perform any nonessential tasks while communicating with ATC. Given that many runway incursions occur even after the pilot reads back the hold short instruction, pilots should develop a technique to remind themselves to hold short of a hold line. ATC/Pilot Communication Radio communication is the primary way that pilots and ATC communicate.
The safety and efficiency of taxi operations at airports with operating control towers depend on this “communication loop". Controllers use standard phraseology and require readbacks and other responses from the flight crew in order to ensure that clearances are understood.
It is the pilot’s responsibility to advise ATC when they do not understand an ATC clearance.
The flight crew should respond by using standard phraseology and the aircraft’s complete call sign or registration number. Regulatory requirements, the AIM, approved flight crewmember training programs, and operational manuals provide information for flight crews on standard ATC phraseology and communications requirements. The following are elements for clear communications. ATC/Pilot Communication (1) It is essential that all misunderstandings or disagreements be resolved to the satisfaction of all flight crew members before taxiing the aircraft.
It is the verbal aspect of this coordination that is most significant. It is not enough to assume that all flight crew members have heard and understood instructions correctly. A common understanding can be enhanced by one flight crew member repeating the instructions verbally and getting agreement on the content and intent from the other flight crew member(s). Any persistent disagreement or uncertainty among crewmembers should be resolved by contacting ATC for clarification.

(2) When flight crew members verbally confirm their understanding of the instructions, they then have a chance to discover and correct any misunderstandings and thus prevent hazardous situations from developing. Verbal Communication
At many airports, taxi clearance can be very complex.
The clearance can involve numerous turns, as well as intermediate hold short of other runways.
Written taxi instructions can be used as a reference for reading back the instructions to ATC and as a means of reconfirming the taxi route and any restrictions. This will mitigate any misunderstanding or forgetting of any part of the taxi clearance, which can lead to a runway incursion. Written Taxi Instructions (6) Be especially vigilant if another aircraft that has a similar call sign is on frequency. Care should be taken to avoid inadvertently executing a clearance or instruction for another aircraft.

(7) If the pilot becomes disoriented, never stop on a runway and initiate communications with ATC to regain orientation.

(8) Pilots should be especially vigilant when instructed to taxi and “Line Up and Wait” (LUAW). Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)/traffic advisory systems (TAS) should be turned on in order obtain awareness of any aircraft that may be landing on your runway. Situational Awareness… Cont.
SA is comprised of, but not limited to, knowledge of the aircraft’s precise position. Flight crews should use a “continuous loop” process to actively monitor and update their progress and location during taxi. Situational Awareness… Cont. A fundamental concept of improving monitoring is realizing that many pilot errors occur when one or more pilots are off-frequency or doing heads-down work, such as programming an FMS. Therefore, perform all high workload duties before beginning to taxi. Otherwise, performing these duties during taxi can have significant safety implications. Situational Awareness (7) Some cockpit displays of traffic information (TCAS, Traffic Information System (TIS)) have the capability to display traffic behind the aircraft. When pilots are in LUAW, and waiting for takeoff clearance, these systems should be turned on to increase the pilot’s awareness of landing traffic. Taxi…Cont. (4) Pilots are required to read back all clearances. Ensure that you include the complete call sign and runway designator when reading back a clearance to enter a specific runway, hold short of a runway, or taxi to LUAW. Avoid using “Roger” or “Wilco” in these instances.

(5) Actively monitor the assigned tower frequency or CTAF for potential conflicts involving their runway, or a crossing runway, when holding in position for takeoff and when on final approach.
If not in use for a higher priority communication, the additional radio, if equipped, should be set to monitor 121.5 as a backup to stuck microphone or lost communications.


(6) Read back all takeoff and landing clearances, including the runway designator, and if applicable, state “intersection departure.” ATC/Pilot Communication (11) After landing, ensure that the entire aircraft, including the tail section, has crossed over the respective landing runway’s hold short line. This will ensure that the entire aircraft is clear of the respective runway safety area. If you are constrained from clearing the landing runway by an adjacent parallel runway hold short line, stop and immediately advise ATC.


(12) After landing, nonessential communications and nonessential flight crew actions should not be initiated until clear (on the inbound (terminal) side) of all runways in accordance with sterile cockpit procedures (e.g., changing radio frequencies and repositioning flaps, trim, and speed brakes).


(13) During landing, do not accept last-minute turnoff instructions from ATC unless you clearly understand the instructions and are certain that you can safely comply. Situational Awareness… Cont. (9) If a pilot has been instructed to LUAW without being advised of the reason/condition (wake turbulence, traffic on intersecting runway, etc.) or the reason/condition is not clearly visible (e.g., another aircraft is has landed or is taking off on the same runway), the pilot should expect a communication from ATC within 90 seconds. If the pilot does not receive a communication from ATC within 90 seconds of the LUAW clearance, the pilot should query ATC. Flight crews should be especially vigilant when instructed to LUAW, particularly at night or during periods of reduced visibility.


(10) Flight crews should use caution after landing on a runway that intersects another runway, or on a runway where the exit taxiway is in close proximity to another runway’s hold short line. Situational Awareness… Cont. (3) Know and use all of the visual aids available at the airport, such as the signs, markings, and lighting as well as ATC (ground and/or tower), to follow the assigned taxi route.

(4) When approaching an entrance to a runway, both pilots will ensure compliance with hold short or crossing clearance. Furthermore, bring the aircraft to a complete stop, or be in a phase of taxiing that has no risk of a runway incursion before continuing with operational duties and checklists.

(5) Scan for aircraft on final approach or landing rollout, and if there is any confusion about the scan results, the pilot should stop taxiing the aircraft and ask ATC to clarify this situation. Situational Awareness… Cont. (1) Have a current airport diagram readily available for reference and check the assigned taxi route against the diagram with the heading indicator or compass, paying special attention to any hot spots and complex intersections.


(2) Pilot(s) must monitor the taxi clearance and read back all hold short instructions. Verbalizing hold short instructions is a method to ensure that pilot(s) have a clear understanding of the intended taxi plan and do not cross any runway hold short lines without ATC clearance. The SIC will request confirmation from the PIC if not received. Situational Awareness… Cont. Planning
Situational Awareness
Written Taxi Instructions
Verbal Communication
ATC Communications
Taxi
Exterior Lighting FLIGHTCREW PROCEDURES
a. FAA ACs (current editions):
AC 120-57, Surface Movement Guidance and Control System.
AC 120-71, Standard Operating Procedures for Flight Deck Crewmembers.

b. Other Guidance:
Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM).
Safety Alerts for Operators (SAFO) 11004, Runway Incursion Prevention Actions.
Pilot’s Guide to Aeronautical Knowledge.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS): http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov.
Runway Status Light (RWSL) Program: http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/technology/rwsl.

c. Web Sites:
Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA): http://www.aopa.org/asf/runway_safety.
FAA Aviation News: http://www.faa.gov/news/safety_briefing/.
FAA Runway Safety Program: http://www.faa.gov/airports/runway_safety.
NOTAMs: https://pilotweb.nas.faa.gov/PilotWeb. Related Reading Material incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Need for SOPs Need for ... Runway incursions have led to serious accidents with significant loss of life.
Although not a new problem, with increasing air traffic, runway incursions have been on the rise.

In developing these SOPs, it is important to consider flight crew workload prior to takeoff and before landing.
Considerations should be given to tasks that make up the NORMAL workload of flight crews, such as accomplishing checklists, configuring the aircraft for takeoff and landing, programming flight management systems (FMS), and managing communications with the carrier and air traffic control (ATC). SOP Increased traffic and expansion at many airports create complex runway and taxiway layouts. This additional complexity has made airport surface operations more difficult and the potential for runway incursions more hazardous than in the past.

To increase safety and efficiency, it is necessary to lessen the exposure to hazards and risks by holding the flight crew’s workload to a minimum during taxi operations. Providing guidelines for the development and implementation of SOP for conducting safe aircraft operations during taxiing to avoid causing a Runway Incursion. Development of SOPs The overall GOAL is -
for operators to develop SOP that will increase the flightcrew’s situational awareness (SA) but will not increase their workload while the aircraft is taxiing. USE OF SOP The use of SOPs should be:
Emphasized during the certification and proficiency training of all pilots;
Emphasized and used during all phases of flight, including ground operations;
Evaluated during the flight review of all certificated pilots. FLIGHTCREW PROCEDURES


Planning
Situational Awareness
Written Taxi Instructions
Verbal Communication
ATC Communications
Taxi
Exterior Lighting BRIEFING PLANNING Flight crews should plan for the airport surface movement portion of the flight just as they plan for the other phases of flight

Planning for taxi operations should be an integral part of the flight crew’s flight.

Planning process and contains two main parts: review items and briefing items. REVIEW Because of the constantly changing airport conditions and guidance information, flight crews must to be aware of any changes made to regulatory and guidance information sources.

without explicate ATC clearance, DO NOT CROSS hold short lines, ILS critical area (CAT I,II).

Updated airport signage, markings, and lighting. Current airport NOTAMs and automated terminal information service (ATIS) for runway and taxiway closures, construction activity, and other airport-specific risks. Just as flight crews brief an instrument approach, it is critical for safety that a thorough briefing of taxi operations is conducted and understood by all crewmembers.

Briefing of the following items should take place at a time when they are relevant and fresh in all crewmembers’ memories (e.g., before taxi and prior to initial descent). (1) Brief the timing and execution of aircraft checklists and company communications. When briefing these tasks, flight crews should also consider the anticipated duration of the taxi operation, the locations of hot spots/complex intersections and runway crossings, and the visibility along the taxi route.

(2) To reduce pilot workload and heads-down time during taxi, it is recommended that, if conditions permit, flight crews conduct predeparture checklists at the gate including setting the takeoff flap setting, when the aircraft is stopped, or while taxiing straight ahead on a taxiway without complex intersections and hot spots. (3) Remind all cockpit occupants of the importance of maintaining a sterile cockpit, but encourage the ability to speak up if anyone sees a potential conflict or interprets a clearance differently.
Encourage jump seaters to monitor communications.

(4) Brief all pilots to display the current airport diagram to follow the progress of the taxi operation.

(5) Brief the expected taxi route to include any hold short lines and runways to cross, hot spots, and any other potential conflicts. Once taxi instructions are received, the pretaxi route should be reviewed and monitored. It is essential that any changes to the taxi route be understood by all crewmembers. (6)Due to operations, such as deicing procedures, or contaminated surfaces, it may not be advantageous to complete certain QRH items (flaps setting, trim etc.) before initial taxi.
In this case these items should be accomplished according to company set procedures, at a time and location to allow completion of all required checklist items without rushing or a hurried pace. CAUTION:
A potential pitfall of pretaxi and prelanding planning is setting expectations and then receiving different instructions from ATC.
Flight crews need to follow the clearance or instructions that are actually received, and not the ones they expected to receive. The following guidelines to help crews cope more efficectively. (e) Brief the expected taxi route to include any hold short lines and runways to cross, hot spots, and any other potential conflicts.

Once taxi instructions are received, the pretaxi route should be reviewed and monitored. It is essential that any changes to the taxi route be understood by all crewmembers. (7) Address previous experience at the airport and unusual procedures or techniques that are not typically used on an everyday basis, such as different pushback procedures or communication equirements. (8) Identify critical locations on the taxi route, (e.g., hot spots/complex intersections, crossing intervening runways, entering and lining up on the runway for takeoff, and approaching and lining up on the runway for landing) where verbal coordination between the PIC and the SIC is important to avoid a runway incursion. In developing these SOPs, it is important to consider flight crew workload prior to takeoff and before landing.

Considerations should be given to tasks that make up the NORMAL workload of flight crews, such as accomplishing checklists, configuring the aircraft for takeoff and landing, programming flight management systems (FMS), and managing communications with the carrier and air traffic control (ATC). The overall GOAL is -
for operators to develop SOP that will increase the flightcrew’s situational awareness (SA) but will not increase their workload while the aircraft is taxiing. USE OF SOP The use of SOPs should be:
Emphasized during the certification and proficiency training of all pilots;
Emphasized and used during all phases of flight, including ground operations;
Evaluated during the flight review of all certificated pilots. Flight crews should plan for the airport surface movement portion of the flight just as they plan for the other phases of flight

Planning for taxi operations should be an integral part of the flight crew’s flight.

Planning process and contains two main parts: review items and briefing items. Examples: • The ATC clearance is: N123 taxi 9R via Bravo, Echo, Juliet, Hold Short 4L at Echo.
• The ATC clearance written: 9R B E J 4L E.
Where the clearance limit of 4L at Echo is circled.
• The ATC clearance may be entered into an FMS or other database scratchpad:
9R BEJ/4L E.
• Where the forward slash /, which represents the Hold Short line, proceed to the clearance limit of 4L at Echo.
• Symbols: Hold Short: (/), Cross (X). Then from the airport diagram, on a taxiway to make a left turn , right turn LIGHTING - cont Pilots should illuminate exterior lights as follows.
(a) Engines Running. Turn on the rotating beacon.

(b) Taxiing. Prior to commencing taxi, turn on navigation, position, anti-collision, and logo lights, if available. To signal intent to other pilots, turn on the taxi light when the aircraft is moving or intending to move on the ground, and turn it off when stopped or yielding or as a consideration to other pilots or ground personnel.
Strobe lights should not be illuminated during taxi if they will adversely affect the vision of other pilots or ground personnel.

(c) Crossing a Runway. All exterior lights should be illuminated.

.
CAUTION: Flightcrews should consider any adverse effects to safety that
illuminating the forward-facing lights will have on the vision of other pilots
or ground personnel during runway crossings.

(d) Entering the Departure Runway for Takeoff or LUAW. flightcrews should make their aircraft more conspicuous to aircraft on final behind them and to ATC by turning on all lights, except for landing lights, that highlight the aircraft’s silhouette. consider lining up slightly to the left or right of the centerline (CL)
Turn on all lights, including landing lights, when takeoff clearance is
received, or when commencing takeoff roll at an airport without an operating control tower. LIGHTING - cont
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