Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Sherlock Holmes and the Development of Forensic Science

No description
by

Therese Suarez

on 15 May 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Sherlock Holmes and the Development of Forensic Science

Sherlock Holmes and the Development of Forensic Science
Sherlock Holmes as drawn by Sidney Paget
Jack the Ripper's victims
Late Victorian England
"Without disparaging progressive police officers of all nations, I believe that the writing of Conan Doyle have done more than any other one thing to stimulate active interest in the scientific and analytic investigation of crime." -Luke S. May,
BERTILLON
HENRY
LANDSTEINER
LOCARD
How have the methods of Sherlock Holmes influenced the development of forensic science since his publication?
bertillonage
fingerprinting
blood
trace evidence
1883
1896
1901
1910
Observation and Deduction
Bertillonage
Fingerprinting
Blood
Trace Evidence
The Creation of Sherlock Holmes
"The path to the Sherlock Holmes stories was this: a maternal influence towards voracious reading, strict Catholic schooling that drove him away from Catholicism, a love of science and reason acquired at school, the rejection of wealthy uncles because of his agnosticism, the failure of his medical practice, a natural talent for story-telling, Edgar Allan Poe's genius, Dr. Joseph Bell's brilliance, and the lucrative remuneration that kept Holmes alive." (O'Brien, 5)
The Conan Doyle Family
Mary Foley
Dr. Joseph Bell, lecturer at the medical school at the University of Edinburgh, later named by Conan Doyle as the inspiration for Sherlock Holmes in 1892.
"Nothing could exceed his energy when the working fit was upon him; but now and again a reaction would seize him, and for days on end he would lie upon the sofa in the sitting room, hardly uttering a word or moving a muscle from morning to night."
-Watson on Holmes,
George Budd
"Brilliant but mercurial, Budd could talk pansively on subject after subject, then lapse into moody silence. The life of the party at one moment, he could turn violent the next." (Freeman, xvi)
"In my last year of study at Edinburgh I formed a remarkable friendship with this remarkable student [George]."
-Conan Doyle,
DID YOU KNOW?
Like Budd, Conan Doyle was also a rugby player.
"...his detective is the best in fiction." -Conan Doyle [on Poe],
October 11, 1894, New York City
=
SIMILAR TRAIT: locked-room murder
=
SIMILAR TRAIT: compromising documents
BBC's re-interpretation of
A Scandal in Bohemia
Dupin
Holmes
"He cut out the elaborate psychological introductions or restated them in dialogue.
He was sparkling, surprising, and short."
-Dorothy Sayers, creator of Lord Peter Wimsey
compared to...
"Now, brought to this conclusion in so unequivocal a manner as we have been, it is not for us, as rational men, to reject it on account of apparent impossibilities. It is only for us to prove that these apparent impossibilities, are, in reality, not as such." -Dupin,
Murders in the Rue
Morgue
...What?
"When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."
-Holmes,
The Beryl Coronet
...Ah.
upper-middle class family originally from Ireland
grandfather John Doyle was a political cartoonist
father Charles Doyle was an architect in the Government Office of Works
primary caretaker of Conan Doyle after her husband was admitted to a lunatic asylum
instilled a love of reading in her son
love of reading would have a great influence in writing the Sherlock Holmes stories
University of Edinburgh
Conan Doyle began his medical studies here in 1876
continued exposure to science
after graduating, rejected his uncles' help in setting up a practice in London's Catholic community
Memories and Adventures
A Study in Scarlet
"The Perfect Hero For His Age"
"A man who believed in reason above all, Holmes was ideal for his time--a time in which science challenged long-held beliefs and the status quo was threatened by social and economic changes."
("The Era of Sherlock Holmes")
Crime's
Nemesis
"Occasionally he the British government."
-Sherlock Holmes,
The Bruce-Partington Plans
Mycroft Holmes as portrayed by Mark Gatiss
"You yourself are not luminous, but are a conductor of light."
-Sherlock Holmes,
The Hound of the Baskervilles
John Watson as portrayed by Jude Law
"He was the most perfect reasoning and observing machine that the world has seen." -John Watson,
A Scandal in Bohemia
Sherlock Holmes as portrayed by Basil Rathbone
Scotland Yard
Jack the Ripper
MODERN CRIME
is
first appearance in
The
Greek Interpreter
helped found the Diogenes Club
unlike his younger brother, Mycroft's specialty is omniscience
a government employee, he despises legwork
full title: Dr. John H. Watson, M.D.
formerly of the Fifth Northumberland Fusiliers
serves as Sherlock's chronicler
married to Mary Morstan
"Science has shown, however, that Mr. Holmes was right and that Dr. Watson was wrong, for in the solution of crime much valuable information about a suspect can be learned simply by observation and deduction." (Hogan, 157)
"It was Bertillon who first observed the obvious need for a scientific method of identifying criminals." (Wagner, 98)
"You are aware that no two thumb-marks are alike?" -Lestrade,
The Norwood
Builder
"...they could be used as tools in paternity suits and other criminal investigations." (Gerber, 34)
"During the very period in which Conan Doyle was constructing the Sherlock Holmes Canon, trace evidence was becoming a vital part of criminalistics." (Wagner, 146)
"isolated intellectual"
embodies the Victorian preoccupation with science
protects the social order by separating himself from it
thrives in London, loathes the countryside
police work considered an art, not a science
at the time, no systematic approach to a crime scene
crime scenes contaminated because of unregulated foot traffic
police always sought a key witness first
murders in Whitechapel happen a year after is published
"evidence was often treated with an impressive lack of scientific organization" (Wagner, 81)
killer could have been identified if Holmes' methods were used
A Study in Scarlet
WORKS CITED
Berg, Stanton O. "Sherlock Holmes: Father of Scientific Crime Detection." The Journal of
Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 61.3 (1970): 446-52. JSTOR. Web. 13
Jan. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1141973>.
Clausen, Christopher. "Sherlock Holmes, Order, and the Late-Victorian Mind." The Georgia
Review 38.1 (1984): 104-23. JSTOR. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
<http://www.jstor.org/stable/41398643>.
Kissane, James, and John M. Kissane. "Sherlock Holmes and The Ritual of Reason." Nineteenth
Century Fiction 17.4 (1963): 353-62. JSTOR. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
<http://www.jstor.org/stable/2932630>.
"The Method Of Sherlock Holmes." The British Medical Journal 2.1722 (1893): 1442-443.
JSTOR. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/20226895>.
"The Method Of Sherlock Holmes In Medicine." The British Medical Journal 2.2035 (1899):
1808. JSTOR. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/20262978>.
Musto, David F. "Why Did Sherlock Holmes Use Cocaine?" Pharmacy in History 31.2 (1989):
78-80. JSTOR. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/41112485>.
Rapezzi, Claudio, Roberto Ferrari, and Angelo Branzi. "White Coats And Fingerprints:
Diagnostic Reasoning In Medicine And Investigative Methods Of Fictional Detectives."
British Medical Journal 331.7531 (Dec. 24-31 2005): 1491-494. JSTOR. Web. 13 Jan.
2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/25455736>.
Siegel, Jack M. "The First Citizen of Baker Street." Chicago Review 1947: 49-55. JSTOR. Web.
13 Jan. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/25292774>.
art can be mastered after long and patient study
founded on noticing the little things
Box 3: Deduction, induction, abduction
Deduction
Rule: all the beans from this bag are white
Case: these beans were contained in this bag
Result: these beans are white
Induction
Rule: these beans from this bag are white
Case: these beans are white
Result: all the beans from this bag are white
Abduction
Rule: all the beans from this bag are white
Case: these beans are white
Result: these beans were contained in the bag
(Rapezzi, 1493)
Sherlock Holmes, Master Problem Solver
Observations Are Important
Data Is Important
"Data! Data! Data!" he cried impatiently. "I can't make bricks without clay."
Question The Obvious
"There is nothing more deceptive than an obvious fact."
Learn From Your Mistakes
"We all learn by experience, and your lesson this time is that you should never lose sight of the alternative."
Review Indirect Proof
"It is an old maxim of mine that when you have excluded the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth."
by Hunter Ballew
Alphonse Bertillon, Father of Forensic Science
The Copper Beeches
"It is a capital mistake to theorise before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts."
A Scandal in Bohemia
The Boscombe Valley Mystery
Black Peter
The Speckled Band
"Eugene Francois Vidocq, Master Criminal Turned Master Detective"
(Fridell, 18)

Portrait Parle
, the First Mug Shot
descriptive words reduced to letter codes
11 measurements, taken 3 times and then averaged
photos in full face and right profile
also called anthropometry
given 3 months to find a repeat offender with his system
finds Dupont within 9 days of deadline
soon adopted throughout the world
fame rises after identifying the anarchist Koenigstein
becomes obsolete after the new method of fingerprinting
Edward Henry, Founder of the British System
Predecessors: Francis Galton, Henry Faulds, William Herschel
Galton's Classification System
"Once the infallibility of fingerprint evidence was established...the system became one of the most valuable assets in detection." (Howe, 80)
Stratton Brothers Case
The Norwood Builder
Henry's big break
27 March 1905: Farrows found dead and their store's cashbox empty
dusted for latent fingerprints using a fine graphite powder
track down Stratton brothers in Deptford and then take their prints
at trial, Faulds nit-picks the minute details that don't make a difference
Stratton brothers found guilty
McFarlane framed by Oldacre
thumbprint placed below hat-peg after McFarlane was taken into custody
story published 2 years before police succesfully used the method
Karl Landsteiner, 1930 Nobel Peace Prize Winner
Predecessors: Jules Bordet, Paul Uhlenhuth
method needed to tell blood stains from one another
guaiacum test "clumsy and uncertain" (Holmes, )
spectroscope could not distinguish human blood from animal blood
A Study in Scarlet
Jules Bordet
Paul Uhlenhuth
found that blood from different species are incompatible.
developed the precipitin test, which could differentiate human and animal blood but not between two humans.
1916: Leone Lattes uses Landsteiner's blood types research to solve the Petrucci case
Holmes' Blood Test
add fresh blood to a litre of water in a glass jar
mix in some colorless crystals (oxidant)
add a clear liquid (acid)
contents turn brown an gather towards bottom
discovers this method 14 years before Landsteiner
Edmond Locard, "Sherlock Holmes of France"
Predecessors: Alexandre Lacassagne, Hans Gross
1911 Counterfeiters Case
coins being counterfeited in Lyons, France
Locard asked to examine suspects' clothing
found traces of metal in dust
suspects convicted
dust particle
1912 Gourbin Case
facial powder
bank clerk Emile Gourbin suspected of killing his girlfriend
alibi: was playing cards with friends at the time of murder
Locard examined facial powder the girl used-same substance from scrapings of Gourbin's fingernail
Gourbin confesses after evidence was presented
"Here, for example, is one Upon the Distinction Between the Ashes of Various Tobaccos. In it I enumerate a hundred and forty forms of cigar, cigarette, and pipe tobacco, with coloured plates illustrating the difference in the ash."
-Holmes,
The Sign of Four
tobacco ash
Locard's Exchange Principle
Objects or surfaces which come into contact always exchange trace evidence. Every contact leaves a trace.
Thank you for watching!
IMAGES USED
IMAGES USED (cont.)
http://rocketdock.com/addon/walls/35539
https://confluence.medu.com/download/attachments/8651649/Apple-iPhone-4-(640x960).png?version=1&modificationDate=1311392581094&api=v2
http://www.oocities.org/escottish144/Essays/Images/PagetSherlock1.gif
http://ddeubel.edublogs.org/files/2011/05/Blank-Piece-of-Paper-1cauvam.png
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/blank-open-notebook-958187.jpg
http://www.weymouthartassn.org/open_notebook3.png
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/open-folder-16666128.jpg
http://therippleeffect2009.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/kdk_1113.jpg
http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/61WpLUzd3zL._SL1500_.jpg
http://us.cdn1.123rf.com/168nwm/nobilior/nobilior1006/nobilior100600076/7143063-blue-note-paper-on-white-background.jpg
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/yellow-stick-note-transparent-texture-backdrop-background-removable-self-vector-illustration-34907420.jpg
http://www.franklinspecialneedscommunitysupport.com/images/Post-it-note-transparent.png
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/white-open-notebook-wood-20456030.jpg
http://images.splitcoaststampers.com/data/ee/images/tutorials/AlFileFolderNotebookStep1.jpg
http://i.istockimg.com/file_thumbview_approve/8655059/2/stock-photo-8655059-high-resolution-open-file-folder.jpg
http://s476.photobucket.com/user/Dr_Doolittle6/media/ist2_2446942-open-file-folder.jpg.html
http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=63012&picture=dog-sitting-black-clipart&large=1
http://sherlock-holm.es/stories/html/pictures/reig-2.png
http://deductionpalace.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/dmalpha.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Teacup_with_Tealeaves_on_Wooden_Table.jpg
http://www.wpclipart.com/education/supplies/pencils/pencils_3/pencil_blank_T.png
http://i00.i.aliimg.com/wsphoto/v0/683722852/Lamy-series-vista-transparent-fountain-pen-ink-pen.jpg
http://www.oocities.org/escottish144/Essays/Images/PagetSherlock1.gif
http://www.shelbycs.org/ms/media%20center/victorian%20england/images/ludgate.jpg
http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/03/12/article-1257565-08ADA12F000005DC-166_468x286.jpg
http://www.conandoyleestate.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Conan-Doyle-family-group.jpg
http://www.conandoyleestate.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/conan-doyle-family-mary-doyle-225x300.jpg
http://www.mladiinfo.eu/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/University-of-Edinburgh.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/Joseph_Bell.jpg
http://www.cliftonrfchistory.co.uk/other/gtbudd/gtbudd.htm
http://www.somethingsporty.com/online/images/cache/_JMP1046.600.jpg
http://img1.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20130307213219/thefollowing/images/8/8f/Edgar_allan_poe_021-1-.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_GaNPg9M10nU/S7_rACNnYVI/AAAAAAAAAnY/UjtZZMpT27M/s1600/the+sign+of+the+four.jpg
http://pulpfictioncoffeehouse.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/murder-in-the-rue-morgue-8x101.jpg
http://fc01.deviantart.net/fs71/i/2012/169/0/4/a_scandal_in_belgravia_by_alessiapelonzi-d53xcoj.jpg
http://digital.lib.lehigh.edu/crime/imageletter.jpg
http://www.crimeculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/dupin-portrait-copy.jpg
http://www.sayers.org.uk/dorothy.jpg
http://darwin-chicago.uchicago.edu/images/Origin-Species-390.jpg
http://media.tumblr.com/94fe6bc20dc8f07134d9d8b473a39ba1/tumblr_inline_mnfhnp7Iu21qz4rgp.jpg
http://magazine.topman.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Jude+Law+Sherlock+Holmes.jpg
http://www.sherlock-holmes.co.uk/pr/rathbone.jpg
http://0.tqn.com/d/dc/1/0/X/g/morse_telegraph_key.jpg
http://www-tc.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/cable/peopleevents/images/p_field_01.jpg
http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/67092/cover/9780521867092.jpg
http://media.panjury.com/uploads/trial/1128697-charles-darwin.jpg_1396593169.png
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-M_xKlLWd6QA/TiSrE8Kge3I/AAAAAAAAAMs/n74tuXQfu88/s1600/Old_Scotland_Yard.gif
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-EUNRxcW63U0/UNDCYFGbnTI/AAAAAAAAACM/rM-1utZSD2o/s1600/jack+the+ripper.jpg
http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/87/29887-004-179159ED.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/68/Vidocq.jpg/250px-Vidocq.jpg
http://flavorwire.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/forensic_bertillon_card.jpg
http://www.visualphotos.com/photo/1x6062231/edward_henry_british_fingerprint_pioneer_h408228.jpg
http://www.croson.net/2006_c16.gif
http://www.murdermap.co.uk/assets_cm/files/Image/albertalfredstrattonlloydsweekly23041905.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/10/Norw-01.jpg/220px-Norw-01.jpg
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1930/landsteiner.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_aRPQuVe8gKo/S_55pWOiIDI/AAAAAAAAHUE/-vcYGXricBE/s400/detective.gif
http://orcutt.net/weblog/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/iv_c_101.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/ABO_blood_type.svg/824px-ABO_blood_type.svg.png
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1919/bordet.jpg
http://ihm2.nlm.nih.gov/MediaManager/srvr?mediafile=/Size2/D1020/b025272.jpg&userid=3&username=nlmadmin&resolution=2&servertype=JVA&cid=1&iid=NLMNLM&vcid=NA&usergroup=Images_from_the_History_of_Medicine-1-Admin&profileid=1
http://www.janinetissot.fdaf.org/images/LOCARD%20Edmond1.jpg
http://whatareyoureadingfor.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/edmond-locard.jpg
http://www.cchem.berkeley.edu/molsim/teaching/fall2009/dust_particles/background2.jpg
https://skinchicinc.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/img_9552-amy.jpg
http://image.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/216415/119172391/stock-photo-closeup-of-a-bunch-of-tobacco-ash-on-white-background-119172391.jpg
http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/1-crime-scene-nyc-early-20th-century-science-source.jpg
https://i.chzbgr.com/maxW500/6760520448/h0B652A45/
Full transcript