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# Vibrations and Waves Physics Project

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## Abed Rafique

on 10 April 2013

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#### Transcript of Vibrations and Waves Physics Project

Measuring simple
harmonic motion Hooke's Law Vibrations and
Waves By Abed Islam, Ameer Ali
and Yahya Hashmi Properties of waves Wave Interactions Thank You for Watching At the equilibrium position, speed reaches a maximum.

At maximum displacement, spring force and acceleration reach a maximum.

In simple harmonic motion, restoring force is proportional to displacement. Hooke's law Formula: F= -kx Simple Harmonic
Motion Vibration about an equilibrium position in which
a restoring force is proportional to the displacement
from equilibrium. A simple pendulum consists of a mass called a bob hanging from a string and fixed at a pivot point. Properties of a simple pendulum The restoring force of a pendulum is a component of the bob's weight.

For small angles, the pendulum's motion is simple harmonic.

Gravitational potential increases as a pendulum's displacement increases. Properties of the measures Period and frequency measure time.

The period of a simple pendulum depends on pendulum length and free-fall acceleration.

Period of a mass-spring system depends on mass and spring constant. Wave Motion A wave is the motion of a disturbance.

Medium is a physical environment through which a disturbance can travel.

A mechanical wave is a wave that requires a medium through which to travel. Wave types Pulse wave: A wave that consists of a single traveling pulse. Periodic waves: A wave that consists of multiple pulses. Properties of waves Sine waves describe particles vibrating with simple harmonic motion.

Vibrations of a transverse wave are perpendicular to the wave motion.
(Transverse waves: a wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the wave is travelling.)

Waves Transfer energy. Properties of waves Wave measures include amplitude, crest, trough and wavelength. Crest: The highest point above the equilibrium position.

Trough: The lowest point below the equilibrium position.

Wavelength: The distance between two similar adjacent points of a wave such as from crest to crest or from trough to trough. Properties of waves Vibrations of a longitudinal wave are parallel to the wave motion. Period, Frequency and wave
speed Types of wave interferences Constructive interference: A superstition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to form the resultant wave.

Destructive interference: A superstition of two or more waves in which individual displacements on opposite sides of the equilibrium position are added together to form the resultant wave. Constructive interference Destructive interference Reflection At a free boundary, waves are reflected.

At a fixed boundary, waves are reflected and inverted. Standing Waves A wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere. Properties of Standing Waves Standing waves have nodes and antinodes.

Nodes: A point in a standing wave that maintains zero displacement.

Antinode: A point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest displacement occurs. The Simple Pendulum Applying simple harmonic motion in
the simple pendulum
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