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CNUR106 Humanistic Theory
Transcript of CNUR106 Humanistic Theory
Humanism, or humanistic psychology, is a psychological approach that emphasizes the study of holism (whole person) where the individual behaviour is connected to their inner feeling and self-concept. Unlike behaviourist, humanist felt that human have control over their reaction and it is based on the belief that patients have potential self-actualization and can grow in a healthy and creative way. Often, it is referred to as the 'third force' in sequence after psychoanalysis and behaviorism. It is a model that emerged in the 1960’s that focuses on human freedom, dignity and potential. Carl Rogers According to Abraham Maslow,"What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization…It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming." Carl Rogers felt that in addition to Maslow's hierarchical needs, in order for a person to develop fully, that they needed to be in an environment which would provide them with genuineness, acceptance and empathy and without such a nourishing environment, healthy personalities and relationships would be unable to flourish. (Thamisgith, 2011). Nicky is an eighteen years old teenager. She is an orphan and she stays in an old house with her younger sister. They lived in an isolated small town in Nigeria, where no one cares to help them. They don’t get support from either relatives or friends. Nicky and her sister need the most basic things in order to survive; according to the Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs. So, as a nurse posted to the town, what are the steps involve for Nicky to make a change and how will you help Nicky and her sister? Rogers' approached personality as dealing with one's self-concept, or, in other words, one's perception and beliefs of self. He believed that when one's own self-image and ideal-self are close in similarities, that is when one is able to reach a greater sense of being worthy of self.
Rogers' theory of personality and self-concept consisted of three components: Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow is considered one of the founders of humanistic psychology. In the 1954 Maslow developed the theory of the hierarchy of human needs. He envisioned a humanistic psychology as a psychology about the whole person; a person who is both healthy and full-functioning. Through humanistic psychology Maslow has discovered that most people are seeking fulfillment in life and personal growth. Carl Rogers was another humanistic psychologist who agreed with most of what Maslow believed, but added that in order for a person to grow they needed an environment that provided them with genuineness, acceptance and empathy.
Roger's was the founder of person-centered approach and absolutely believed that each person is capable of reaching their goals and wishes in life. Should a person actually reach their goals in their life, then they have reached self-actualization. Adedayo G., Mercy E., Ashley P. Since Abraham Maslow was a humanist, he believed in peoples growth. He also believed that people naturally want to become the best they can ever be. There are various needs that these people need to fulfill before they can achieve their aim of growing and this was how Maslow came up with the hierarchy of needs which is usually illustrated using a pyramid. There are five levels of hierarchy and in each level, there are needs to be met. People move to the higher level when there goal has been met on a lower level. In order to become self actualized, the needs have to be fulfilled in the correct order. Starting from the most basic, the levels are: Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Physiological The needs here include: breathing (air), food, water, basic health, sleep and hygiene. They are things needed for our daily survival. Imagine thinking about anything else when you haven’t eaten all day. Hunger is a driving force that makes people search for food. If you have to use the bathroom, everything else waits while you find yourself a restroom. Safety and Security The needs here include: security of body, security of employment (income), of family, of food and morality. They are also survival needs but they are not basic. For example, if one looses their job, their main focus would be how to secure another job in order to pay off their bills. The safety of your family is also found at this level. If someone threatens your child, you get on the defensive and focus your attention toward their protection. Once we are able to eat and our safety and security is assured, then we move on to the next hierarchy. Love and Belonging The needs here include: friendship, family and relations. This is where the focus is mostly on relationship. We then realize we need friends, partners/soul mates and family. We want to love and be loved. We need someone to share intimate thoughts with. In achieving this, some people become religious and join religious groups (church or mosque), some join some other organizations which could include gang groups. If the social aspect is not met, it leads to unhappiness, anxiety. Esteem The needs here include: self-esteem, confidence, achievement and respect. Maslow described esteem in two forms;
•Lower: This involves providing our world to those that surround us. This allows people to appreciate us.
•Higher: This is actually feeling secure about our personal self. Feeling good of who we are. Inferiority complex sets in when peoples esteem need are not being met. The needs here include: morals, emotions, creativity, lack of prejudice, acceptance. This is the highest level on the hierarchy. Here we have achieved excellence, our maximum potentials have been actualized. People have actually become the best they can ever be. Self-Worth/Self-Esteem One's self-worth is held up by their own set of beliefs about self. It consists of what one thinks about their self. Self-Image How one see's their self. Ideal Self What one would like their self to actually be like Teacher as a Facilitator Facilitative teaching is a humanist approach to learning.Rogers theory sees the teacher as the key role in the process of learning. The facilitation here occurs through the teachers attitude in his personal relationship with the students.Qualities necessary for facilitative practice include:•Realness: The teacher has to be a real person aware of his feelings and be able to communicate them appropriately.•Prizing, acceptance and trust: Refers to the teacher caring about the student and his acceptance of students feeling.•Empathy: A teacher can understand students perspective on the process onlearning and his reactions from the inside. Humanist believes that an individual’s behaviour is connected to their inner feelings and self-concept. They also believe that nursing caring is a two way interaction between nurse and client, both influencing the outcomes. The nurses act as facilitators who engage in educating and helping the client to achieve her goal which is self-actualization. Nicky and her sister need the basic survival needs like food, breath, good sleep, basic health and hygiene. Physiological needs Safety and Security In this stage, security of body (clothing), health, income, family (support) food and morals would be necessary to achieve. Although they are still part of survival needs but not the basic ones. Nicky and her sister need income (money) in order to buy clothes, food and even stay in a good house. Love and Belonging This stage includes making friends, relationships and identifying with the family members. So in order for their aim to be achieved, Nicky and her sister must learn how to be social and relate with people. When people's social needs are not met, they tend to be unhappy. This leads to loneliness, social anxiety, and even depression. Esteem In order to keep moving forward towards achieving a goal, one must have high self-esteem. In this stage, Nicky and her sister will develop confidence over what they have achieved already. So as a nurse, encouraging them will help build a positive and strong self-esteem. Actualization Self-actualization is the last stage of this hierarchy of need. It occurs when someone has achieved their full potential. Nicky and her sister have proceeded to self-development which is the ability of them to take personal responsibility for their own learning and development through assessment, reflection and taking action. It involves moral, emotions, creativity, behaviours and acceptance of facts. References Wu H. -L. & Volker D.L. (2012) Humanistic Nursing Theory: application to hospice and palliative care. Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(2), 471–479.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bs.3830370105/abstracthttp://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/humanistic_research.htmlhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/humanistic-theory.htmlKendra Cherry. What is self actualization. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/hierarchyneeds_2.htm
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Person Centred Therapy. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/client-centred-therapy.html
McLeod, S. A. (2007). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html Conclusion The main psychologists behind humanism theory are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. It is centered towards the learner and it places the learner first, which allows for the learner to have control over their life.
Nurses act as educators and their genuine presence is always needed which means that they must be open and available to patients in a certain way. That means they are open as a helper to the patients. Unlike behaviourists, humanism felt humans have more control over their responses and it is based on the belief that patients have the potential for self-actualization and can grow in a healthy and creative way.