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Minerals

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Matthew Lewis

on 12 October 2010

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Transcript of Minerals

Minerals
How Do they Form?
What types are there?
How are they classified?
A Mineral is:
a naturally formed, inorganic, solid, with a definite crystalline structure
minerals must form by natural processes,
cannot be made in a lab!
must not come from living things
Cannot be liquids
atoms must be in an orderly, repeating pattern
Minerals are compounds
with a formula
1. Crystallize from magma
2. Precipitate
3. Pressure and Temperature
4. Hydrothermal Solutions
As magma (liquid rock) cools and solidifies
elements bond together to form crystals
Solids that form out of water:
usually due to:
1. Change in temperature
2. Change in concentration
3. Evaporation of water
Changing the Temperature or pressure
of a mineral can cause it to
recrystallize into a new structure
Hydrothermal Solutions are:
mixes of extremely hot water and dissolved substances
between100-300 degrees celsius
chemical reactions are more frequent and form new minerals
Silicates
Carbonates
Oxides
Sulfates and Sulfides
Halides
Native Elements
Most abundant type of mineral
Composed of the elements Silicon and Oxygen
Carbonates are the second most abundant
Composed of Carbon, Oxygen, and one or more metallic elements
Oxides contain
oxygen and one or more other elements usually metals
Sulfates and Sulfides are minerals that contain the element sulfur
Usually form as a precipitate or in hydrothermal solutions
Halides contain a Halogen and one or more other elements
Native elements contain only one type of element
Scientists use a variety of chemical and physical
properties to classify minerals
Color
Streak
Luster
Crystal Form
Hardness
Cleavage
Fracture
Density
Other properties
While color may be the first thing you notice it is often the most unreliable
Some minerals have very unique colors that help identify them but most do not
color is often caused by impurities in the mineral
Streak is the color of the mineral in powdered form
Streak is obtained by rubbing the mineral on a streak plate
Luster is how light reflects off of the mineral
Luster comes in two main categories
Metallic - has the appearance of a metal
Non-metallic - does not look like a metal
Metallic luster can be classified as:
Metallic - bright shiny metal
Sub-metallic - dull, imagine graphite
Non-Metallic lusters come in
a variety of forms.
The two we will primarily deal with are:
Vitreous - Glassy
Earthy - dull
Crystal form is a visible expression of a minerals internal arrangement
There are six main classes of crystals:
Isometric
Hexagonal
Tetragonal
Orthorhombic
Triclinic
Monoclinic
is an expression of a minerals resistance to being scratched
Moh's scale of hardness:
Ten common (index) minerals are arranged 1-10 (10 is the hardest)
10. Diamond
9. Corundum
8. Topaz
7. Quartz
6. Orthoclase
5. Apatite
4. Flourite
3. Calcite
2. Gypsum
1. Talc
Common object with a known hardness:
Streak plate 6.5
Glass 5.5
Knife blade 5.1
Wire nail 4.5
Copper penny 3.5
Finger Nail 2.5
A mineral has cleavage when it breaks along smooth, flat, even surfaces.
A mineral exhibits fracture when it breaks unevenly
Density = Mass/Volume
Some minerals have distinct special properties that help identify them. Examples are:
Taste
Radioactivity
Chemical Reactivity
Flourescence
Smell
Optical properties
X
Naturally Formed
Non-living
PbS
Al O
2 3
SiO
2
Fe O
Definite
Crystalline Structure
Silicates
Water Displacement Method
Solid
Full transcript