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Transcript of TONI-4
Test of Nonverbal Intelligence
Joe Manzione and Macee Maddock
Assessment Instrument Review
Purpose of TONI-4
How is the TONI-4 scored?
Reliability and Validity
Published in 2010
Cognitive Mathematics Assessment
Administered to ages 6:0-89:11
A nonverbal, motor-reduced format
"Language-free" for those who may be challenged with language, hearing, and/or motor abilities, and ELL's
Test may be delivered in:
Eliminates complex language and motor requirements.
Results exhibit skill areas of measuring:
Assessment Measure Provides:
Cognitive Information for a diverse population;
5 Training items for each form ('A' and 'B')
Form A and Form B (60 questions each)
First 19 questions: ages 6:0-9:11 years
Questions 20-60: ages 10:0-89:11 years
Questions are based on:
Individuals respond with gestures:
[Including - not limited to]
*Makes test available to individuals with language-challenges and/or motor challenges
How is the TONI-4 given?
Whom language and/or motor challenges may exist.
For both children and adults;
Each correct response - 1 point
Each incorrect response - 0 points
1. Index Scores: Mean = 100; Standard Deviation = 15
3. Age Equivalents
4. Descriptive Terms
Test will discontinue/cease if test-taker:
By Linda Brown, Rita J. Sherbenou, and Susan K. Johnsen, PhD
Standardized Norming Sample:
Test-retest reliability showed (
= 63) consistency for both forms [Immediate and delayed administrations]
Standard Error of Measurement: 3
Form A and B both have a Standard Error of Measurement of 2-4
Alpha Coefficient: .96
Pearson examined results by evaluating content, construct, and predictive validity.
Sample included 2,272 participants from 31 United States
Verbal instructions were delivered in English (77%)
Remaining used the nonverbal instructions (23%)
Form used for 77% of the normative sample
Has three errors occur within five items = Ceiling reached
Cannot understand the expectation after two trials of a training item
Scores are available in four ways:
Five consecutive correct responses - Basal Achieved (Floor)
Third error out of five consecutive responses - Ceiling Achieved
(n=112) - Correlations with:
- CTONI-2 full scale
- TONI-3 were .79 and .74
Administered with clear and easy-to-understand instructions in short amount of time to a diverse array of children and adults aged 6-89 years.
Oral directions in a variety of languages serving the linguistically diverse national population.
Nonverbal directions to those who may benefit to grasp without a language requirement.
Responses do not have motor or language-based requirements -
accessible to a wide range of individuals with varying needs.
The total of 60 items reduced the floor and ceiling effects.
This assessment is best used for a multicultural and physically diverse population of children and adults aged 6:0-89:11 years. TONI-4 does not require language or advanced motor skills, which opens up opportunities to use this tool with diverse populations of learners.
The previous versions of the TONI were biased, prior to a logistical regression:
Three dichotomous groups were compared by effect sizes
1. Male vs. Female
2. African American vs. non-African American
3. Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic
Any items that showed moderate (34-70%) or large bias ( > 70%) were deleted and replaced with non-biased items
Results showed the TONI-4 to be unbiased
The information from the TONI-4 can be used as part of a battery to examine general intellectual functioning, diagnose intellectual impairments and verify referrals for special services.
*Manual provides corresponding rating with each index score interval (IQ)
Based on the normative sample - Some of the stratification subgroups may be perceived to be small; due to:
The sample was tested wit the English version (77%)
23% of the sample was tested with the nonverbal instructions
Examples of the subgroups:
13% - Exceptionally subgroup
7% - Adults with disability
It is noted that this was a representative of the United States population at the time the norming was completed.
With the norming sample size, certain reliability and validity is put to question.
Average content difficulty level ranged on Form A (28%-83%), and Form B (27%-83%)
Item discrimination - Form A (45%-66%), and Form B (48%-69%)
Discrimination percentiles median is approximately 50%
Form A: between .94 and .97
Form B: between .93and .97