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Arc Flash Awareness

A condensed summary ... WIP
by

Michael Oliver

on 4 March 2015

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Transcript of Arc Flash Awareness

What is an arc flash?
W's of arc flash
Financial Factors
Ethical Factors
Arc Flash Awareness
Legal Factors
An arc flash hazard is a dangerous condition associated with the possible release of energy caused by an electric arc.
In other words.....
Electrical Accidents
Safety Accidents
Overall
Why Electrical Safety is Important
Who is Affected?
Electricians
Maintenance personnel
Engineers, supervisory personnel, or others within the flash protection boundary
What is the Cost to the Business?
Average medical cost for a survivable arc flash victim is $1.5M
6-8 months of lost work
Devastating injury ends career
Litigation cost
Cost of new equipment
Cost of install/repair
Insurance renewal
Loss of morale
Bad press
When do They Occur?
5-10 arc flash explosions occur in electric equipment every day in the U.S.
Each year more than 2,000 people are treated in burn centers with severe arc flash injuries
Where do They Occur?
Main switchgear rooms
Electrical rooms
Production floor
Power panels
Motor control centers
Why do They Occur?
Inadvertent contact
Loose connections
Insulation failure
Poorly maintained equipment
Voltage transients
Unsuccessful short circuit interruptions
Animals (squirrels, raccoons, snakes, etc.)
Arc flash Vocabulary
Incident Energy-

The amount of energy impressed on a surface, a certain distance from the source, that is generated during an arc event (measured in calories per square centimeter- cal/cm2)
Flash Protection Boundary-

Distance where the incident energy is equal to 1.2 cal/cm2 (1.2 cal/cm2 is the minimum energy required to produce 2nd degree burns on skin).
Arcing Fault-

An electrical fault where current flows through ionized air, causing an arc (energy is dissipated in the surrounding air, such as lightning).
Bolted Fault-

An electrical fault where high current flows through a solid connection (energy is dissipated in equipment, such as a grounding rod or cable).
The Law
NFPA 70 (NEC)
110.9- The need to have the correct interrupting rating
110.10- Selecting and coordinating protective devices that will clear a fault without damaging equipment
110.16- Affixing arc flash warning labels to equipment
NFPA 70B (Recommended Practices for Electrical Equipment Maintenance)
8.4.3- Fundamentals of Electrical Equipment Maintenance
An up-to-date short circuit and coordination study is essential for the safety of personnel and equipment.
NFPA 70E (Electrical Safety in the Workplace)
110.1- Responsibilities- Owner, Contractor, Employees
130.2- Electrically Safe Working Conditions
130.2(A)- Justification
130.5 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis
205.3 General Maintenance Requirements
IEEE Standard 1584
Guide for performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations
OSHA- 29 CFR 1910
1910.132- PPE
1910.333(a)(1)- Requirement to Deenergize
1910.333- Qualified Personnel and PPE
1910.335- Tools and Barriers
Recent Enforcement Actions
9-3-2009: Electrical Contractor- $148,000
2-24-2010: USPS Kansas- $191,000
4-30-2010: USPS Providence- $558,000
6-1-2011: Hartford Financial Services- $48,000
12-29-2011: Case Farms Chicken Processing- $288,000
7-9-2012: Maine Steel Fabricator- $132,000
10-10-2012: Fontarome Chemical- $51,000
Objectives:
Understand what it is
Increase awareness of the rules involved
Understand how bad things can get when they go wrong
10 arc flash injuries occur each day
An injured worker can spend one day in the hospital for each single percent of body burned
$10,000 to 15,000,000 cost per injury
Other injuries besides thermal burns
How much did your equipment cost?
If it is damaged-
How much will it cost to replace?
How much will it cost to install or repair?
How much will it cost due to downtime?
How much will premiums increase?
A shutdown that can't be scheduled, all too often becomes an unscheduled shutdown.
Taking a proactive approach to ensure a safe work environment
Caring about the safety of our employees (and their family)
Understanding that a human life is far more significant than any profit
Terminal illness vs. Catastrophic burn injury
Burn victims:
PTSD more prevalent than those with spinal cord injuries, amputations, heart failure or major chest trauma.
Severe depression often leads to...
Suicide
Most importantly, understand that at the end of the day,
EVERYONE GOES HOME
.
Policy & Procedures
Training
Documentation
It is less likely that workers, contractors and facility owners will allow energized work once everyone involved in the decision making process fully understands the laws, requirements, hazards, true costs and consequences associated with energized work.

-H. Landis Floyd (DuPont)
"The lethal potential of electricity cannot be underestimated. This accident could have easily resulted in a double fatality, as electricity moves-and can kill- at the speed of light. Due to the grave nature of these hazards, we are proposing the maximum fines allowed under the law."

-Robert Kowalski
OSHA Area Director
"These conditions cited here exposed workers to the swift and potentially deadly hazards of electric shock, arc flashes and arc blasts. This large fine reflects both the gravity of these hazards and the Postal Service's ongoing knowledge of and failure to correct them."

-David Michaels
Asst. Secretary of Labor for OSHA
"What employers must understand is that they or their contractors must first de-energize electrical equipment and circuits before employees work on them."
-Paul Mangiafico
OSHA Area Director
"A serious violation occurs when there is substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result from a hazard about which the employer
knew or should have known
."

What else does OSHA say?
Basically it's an electrical explosion.
why
Is a facility getting the best value if they employ the services of a contractor that is not truly qualified?
Whomever you use to service your electrical needs, you owe it to yourself, your company, your contractor and their families to ensure that they are not only properly protected but that they are properly qualified.
Full transcript