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Sampling Considerations

Drinking Water
by

s s

on 24 February 2015

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Transcript of Sampling Considerations

Distribution System
Total Coliform Rule
Lead and Copper Rule
Disinfection By-Product Rule
Cryptosporidium
Giardia & E. coli
must be
greater than or equal to 0.2 mg/L
Chlorine or Chloramines
ENTRY POINT
based on Alkalinity in source water
Conventional Filtration
Surface Water or GWUDI
(sample set - source and CFE)
Must show removal of TOC
CUSTOMER
Lead and

Copper
Represents water
in the home
Must collect
1 LITER
FIRST DRAW
Sample
Total Coliform Rule
TCR
Representative of the water in the distribution system
sample at
The Town of Perfect
DBP
TCR
TTHM
DBP Rule
HAA5
Chlorite
Total Trihalomethane
Haloacetic Acids
Resources
303-739-6767
Sherry Scaggiari
sscaggia@auroragov.org
TAP
6 hours in the pipe,
minimum
First Draw =
The State of Colorado Website
Google reg 11 colorado

Water Quality Control Commission Regulations

Drinking Water Regulation 5 CCR 1002-11
DBP Rule
Chlorite
Bromate
(if using ozone)
(if using chlorine dioxide)
4.0 mg/L as Cl2
Based on Population
Number of TCR
Samples
per month
Sterile
Bacti Bottles
100 mls - must be marked
Sodium Thiosulfate
to Remove Chlorine
Presence/Absence Tests
Total coliforms ferment lactose with gas and acid formation within 48 hours at 35C
Positive for Colilert method
Positive E. coli for Colilert
Apply UV light
Rank the results from lowest to highest
90th Percentile
for 5 samples:
average the two highest numbers to get the 90th percentile value
for 10 samples:
for 20 or more samples:
the 9th value is the 90th percentile
multiply the number of samples by 0.9
Use that value to find the 90th percentile.
52 samples taken
Multiply by 0.9
=46.8
Example:
Lead AL 0.015mg/L
Action Levels
Copper AL
1.3 mg/L
1 mg/L = parts per million = 1000ug/L
UNITS
1 ug/l = part per billion = 0.001mg/L
1 ng/L = parts per trillion = 0.001 ug/L = 0.000001mg/L = 1 drop of water in
20 Olympic Swimming Pools
MCL
TTHM = 0.080 mg/L = 80 ug/L
HAA5 = 0.060 mg/L = 60 ug/L
Chlorite = 1.0 mg/L
Maximum Contaminant Level
http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/guidance/sdwa/qref/index.cfm
EPA
Quick Reference Guides
Source Water
Determines required
treatment to achieve
removal of giardia,
Nitrate (NO3)
NO3 & NO2 Rule
MCL = 10 mg/L
Nitrite (NO2)
MCL = 1 mg/L
MCL = 4.0 mg/L
Fluoride (F)
Chlorine Dioxide
(if using chlorine dioxide)
Disinfectant Residuals
0.8 mg/L as ClO2
MCL = 0.010 mg/L
MCL = 1.0 mg/L
Organic Chemicals Rule
Radionuclide Rule 11.22
Entry Point
This is a virtual tour of the
Town of Perfect
Disclaimer: The contents may not be perfect and each system may have considerations not covered herein. This presentation is an overview of sampling for various rules. Please consult the appropriate regulation for specifics for your system. If you have further questions, please contact CDPHE for assistance and guidance.
Under the Action Level
Over The Action Level
YOU-tube
Coliforms indicate whether you have pathogenic bacteria.

Can’t sterilize system, CAN disinfect it.
LIVE!!!!!
Chlorine or Chloramines
MRDL Rule 11.23
holding time is immediate
Chlorine or Chloramines
chlorine = test for free chlorine
chloramine = test for total chlorine
0.15 or greater
Sample in plastic or glass
Hold Time 48 hours
methemoglobinemia
or
Blue Baby Syndrome
100 mls
SMCL = 2.0 mg/L
Inorganic Rule 11.19
VOCs and SOCs
Various MCLs - 11.21
40 ml vials
no headspace
contains preservative
250 mls glass
may contain preservative
one sample in two different quarters in one calendar year during 3-year compliance period
Other Entry Point Rules
Sodium Rule 11.20
report to local health authority
frequency depends on source water
Inorganic Rule 11.19
Frequency?
According to the sampling plan
Monthly (most systems)
Ground water systems serving < or = 1000
Hand pump or seasonal systems =
when in operation
Selecting Sites
According to your site sampling plan
Represent the water in your distribution system
Faucets that have separate hot and cold handles
Clean area with a good amount of space
AVOID:
pressure or movement activated
boiled or chilled water loop
point of use treatment
pull out or down hose sprayer
Membrane Filtration
coliform colonies are
grown on M-Endo Media
Dark green with metalic sheen
MPN Method
Presumptive = Lactose Broth
Confirmed = Brilliant Green Lactose Bile Broth
Count Tubes with gas formation
use statistical algorithm chart for results
AL
Level at which the supplier is required to comply with additional requirements
Pb and Cu
Calculation of 90th Percentile
Disinfection Residual Sampling
cannot be undetectable
in more than 5% of the samples each month for two consecutive months
SWTR and GWR specifies collection of disinfectant residuals at the same sites as routine TCR samples
DBP Precursors Rule 11.24
Surface Water Treatment Rule: Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium (11.10)
cryptosporidium and E. coli
Total Coliforms are the most important water quality indicator.
www.tn.gov/environment/water/fleming_study.shtml
LABORATORY
SAMPLES
GRAB
- SINGLE POINT IN TIME
COMPOSITE
- OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM
- TIME COMPOSITE - Same place, samples taken at time intervals
- OVERVIEW - different locations in one body of water or pile.
What type of sample would you use for chlorine residual?
Why?
What type of sample would you use for pH?
Why?
What type of sample would you use for BOD in a wastewater treatment plant? Why?
WATER QUALITY TESTS
Alkalinty
a water's ability to neutralize acid, or the buffering capacity of a water
a chemical characteristic of water
pH
acidic or basic characteristic of a water; hydrogen ion concentration
potentiometric analysis, pH probe, 0-14 SU
titration
a chemical characteristic of water
Taste and Odor
how a water tastes or smells
most complaints are in this category
aesthetic property of water
Color
color of water
aesthetic property of water
Turbidity
measure of clarity
turbidity can shield bacteria, could be a health concern or an aesthetic issue
turbidimeter, nephelometric analysis, NTU
affects chlorine demand
Chlorine Residual
measure of chlorine available to disinfect water
Cl2 demand (mg/L) =
Cl2 dosage (mg/L) - Cl2 residual (mg/L)
DPD method - colorimetric, spectrophotomer
Amperiometric Titration - gives you the concentration of chlorine
holding time - immediate, grab sample
holding time - immeduiate, grab sample
Fluoride
SPADNS - Colorimetric or spectrophotometer method
Electrode method
MCL and SMCL
Chemical characteristic - positive effect on tooth decay, negative effect if too high
requires calibration of probe and maintenance (cleaning) of probe
Safe Drinking Water Act
REGULATIONS
State of Colorado has Primacy
The State enacts the Regulations set forth by EPA
Public Water Systems report to the State
Public Water System:
15 Service Connections
Serve 25 people daily for 60 days
or
at least
Reports to the State
System must report violations within 24 hours to the state.
Report results of routine analysis by the 10th of the month after results are received.
Most systems are required to do public notice of some type.
Public Notice
Yearly report of found contaminants, mailed to all consumers. (can now be emailed if certain conditions are met)
Consumer Confidence Report
TIER 1 Violation
must notify all consumers
via broadcast media, reverse 911, hand delivery
acute violation
within 24 hours
TIER 2 Violation
Violation of MCL, MRDL or Treatment Technique or failure to monitor
situations with potential to have serious adverse affects on public health.
must notify all consumers
within 30 days
Mail notice to all consumers
TIER 3 Violation
situations not included in Tier 1 or 2
Failure to comply with testing procedure or monitoring violation(except where Tier 1 or 2 notice required)
Must notify all consumers
within 1 year
Mail to all consumers - usually CCR
situations with significant potential to have serious adverse effects on public health as a result of short term exposure
Full transcript