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Oak Woodland and Chaparral
Transcript of Oak Woodland and Chaparral
Abiotic factors include soil, water, atmosphere, and radiation. Other abiotic factors range from living place to nutrients. All organisms require abiotic factors, such as phosphorus, to grow and live. The most important abiotic factor is weather; it influences both nonliving and living things. Many animals die each year from these conditions such as rain, snow, temperature, wind, and storms especially. Humans have an advantage; they can just enter a warm or cooled down building or wear protective clothing. The abiotic factors contribute to the water cycle mainly through the atmosphere.
The biotic factors, or living things, in the oak woodland and chaparral ecosystem contribute to the carbon cycle by adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere when performing cellular respiration, and then removing it from the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Human activity also releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The animals and plants contribute to the nitrogen cycle as waste when they die. Plants contribute to the phosphorus cycle by absorbing the phosphate from the soil or from water. Emily, Lacey, Leonie, & Megan Food Web Dead Organisms Earthworm Tree Frog Spotted Skunk Acorn Woodpecker Bobcat Oak Trees Oak Moth Long-Toed Salamander Black-Tailed Jackrabbit White-Tailed Kite Mountain Lion Acorn Woodpecker Oak Moth Oak Trees Mountain Lion 90% of the energy from an organism diminishes by heat. Therefore when a primary organism is eaten by a secondary there is only a 10% energy gain. Energy Pyramid 100% energy 10% energy 1% energy 0.1% energy Threats to Biodiversity
A few of the major threats to biodiversity in the oak woodland and chaparral ecosystem are human development, such as building new houses near the chaparral biome, pollution, introduction of non-native species, such as iceplant, periwinkle and ivy, over burning and “fuel treatments” conducted by fire agencies, due to the misconception that chaparral needs to burn on a regular basis to remain healthy. Chaparral is only supposed to burn a minimum of every 15-20 years, which is the amount of time that it needs to fully recover. As a result of the frequent fires caused by humans, the chaparral is not able to fully recover from the harsh burning. Several non-profit organizations are working to help educate people about the chaparral biome, and also helping to remove non-native species. The California Chaparral Institute, for example, is a non-profit organization that helps to preserve the environment and informing people about fire prevention. The Oak Woodland and Chaparral regions of the Elkhorn Slough have a lot of defining biotic factors including the white-tailed kite, the acorn woodpecker, the bobcat, the mountain lion, the tree frog, the oak moth, the golden eagle, the long-toed salamander, the black-tailed jackrabbit, and the grey fox. Some of the common plants found in the Elkhorn Slough are poison oak, sword fern, California blackberry, the hedge nettle, the snowberry, the coffeeberry, the beeplant, miner’s lettuce, eucalyptus, conifers, riparian woodlands, and one of the most common plants, the oak tree.
Within the Oak Woodland and Chaparral regions, the climate is very moist, it can get sunny and foggy at times, and there are plenty of water sources available including the slough and occasional rainfall. The CA Brown Pelican is a native species to the oak woodland ans chaparral. The population of the pelicans has slowly began to increase today. It is now the "Least Concern" on the IUCN(International Union of Conservation) Red List.
The main cause of the pelican's decline was humans killing them by the thousands.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, the pelicans were hunted down because women wanted to embellish their hats with the feathers of the pelicans. Again, after WW1, the pelicans were killed to avoid the fishing competition for humans, who also raided the nests searching for the pelican eggs. Then in 1940, the use of DDT insecticide contaminated the fish in which the pelicans would eat. From consuming of contaminated fish, the eggshells thinned, causing the chicks to die, and the chicks that did survive, had deformities.
As a result from all three events, the pelican's death rate way greater than the birth rate, which in 1970 caused them to be listed as an endangered species.
To this day, the birth rates have began increasing, and DDT insecticide is no longer being used in the U.S. Also, it is no longer on the IUCN Red List. Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Water Cycle Phosphorus Cycle www.blueplanetbiomes.org www.californiachaparral.com/cpanicoverfire.html dnr.wi.gov www.enviroliteracy.org kenpitts.net bioh.wikispaces.com Works Cited
1. "Threats to Chapparal." California Chaparral Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://californiachaparral.com/threatstochaparral.html>.
2. Miller, Kenneth R., and Joseph R. Levine. Biology. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2004. 74-79. Print.
3. ElkhornSlough.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2013. <http://www.elkhornslough.org/>.
4. Fir 002. Eucalyptus Trees. 3 may 2005. Photograph. N.p.
5. Floyd, David. Poison Oak. 1 july 2003. Photograph. Decatur, IL, n.p.
6. Kitsteiner, John. Oak Tree. 6 february 2013. Photograph. N.p.
7. Long-Toed Salamander. 2000. Photograph. California Herps, Kittitas County, Washington. 8. "Google Images." Google Images. 13 Apr. 2013 <http://images.google.com/>.
9. Wit, Lawrence C. "Environment" World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 21 Mar. 2013