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Romanticism, Dark Romanticism & Transcendentalism
Transcript of Romanticism, Dark Romanticism & Transcendentalism
ONCE upon a midnight dreary,
while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore--
While I nodded, nearly napping,
suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
University and Army Days
In 1826, attends University of Virginia at 17 years old.
Does well in Latin and French
Drinks heavily and goes into debt
Quits school less than a year later
Born in Boston, MA - Jan. 19, 1809
Mother, Elizabeth, leaves with the kids
She dies shortly after (1811)
David, Edgar and Rosalie (children) are separated:
David - lives with grandparents
Edgar - adopted by Mr. & Mrs. John Allan
Rosalie - adopted by another family
At 6, Edgar goes to school in England for 5 years
After quitting school...
He has no money or job skills
Is shunned by John Allan
Joins the U.S. Army in 1827 (at 18)
Attains rank of sergeant major
Mrs. Allan dies
John Allan, in a friendly gesture, signs Edgar's application to West Point.
In West Point
In 1830, enters West Point as a cadet
John Allan refuses to send money
It is thought that Edgar purposely broke rules to be dismissed
A Difficult Life Continues...
Desperation in New York
In NY, Poe has no money, no friends, and financial trouble.
Begs John Allan for help, but never receives any.
Even when John dies in 1834, he doesn't mention Edgar in his will.
In 1831, Edgar goes to NYC
publishes some poetry
Submits stories to magazines, but all are rejected.
Married Life (Briefly)
In 1836, Poe marries Virginia Clemm...
... and then in 1847, she dies from tuberculosis.
Poe works as a newspaper editor and a writer throughout his life, but never makes enough money to be comfortable.
On October 3, 1849, Poe is found delirious on the streets of Baltimore:
"in great distress, and ... in need of immediate assistance," according to the man (Joseph W. Walker) who found him.
He dies in Washington College Hospital on Sunday, October 7, 1849 at 5:00 AM.
Poe was never coherent long enough to explain what happened or why he was not wearing his own clothes...
... though he is said to have repeatedly called out "Reynolds" on the eve of his death.
Some sources report that his final words were:
"Lord help my poor soul."
Then, newspapers blamed "congestion of the brain."
The actual cause is a mystery.
(1809 - 1849)
in "The Raven"
Philosophy of Composition
"Unity of Effect"
Describes the act of writing like a Math equation:
Short enough (100 lines) for one sitting.
Writes about the creation of "The Raven"
Death of a woman = most poetic use of death.
Believed that a poem should attempt to achieve a
"Backwards writing" in a way:
Choose the poem's desired effect
Then, everything else is decided (subject, tone, metaphor, repetition, etc.)
= a movement in art, literature, and music in the 19th century.
was emphasized over "reason."
necessary for all art
As a backlash against the "Age of Reason" or Neoclassical period.
British writer Samuel Taylor Coleridge called it "intellectual intuition."
Characterized by the five "I"s:
Romantics also valued
feelings and instincts
, over reason.
William Wordsworth described poetry as "the spontaneous
overflow of powerful feelings."
Refers to any theory that emphasizes the
spirit, the mind, or language over matter
as we would like it to be
rather than how it really is.
The Romantic artist/musician/writer as an "
" rather than a technical master.
The artist as being
rather than precise.
Celebration of individual
(Women's Rights and Abolitionism are taking root at this time).
For example, Walt Whitman's poem "Song of Myself" begins:
"I celebrate myself.."
this all start
Began after the French Revolution
In a reaction to the Neoclassical "Age of Reason" and Rationalism:
Desire for independence
Involved all of the arts:
art, music, and literature.
Embraced themes from Middle Ages:
Chivalry and courtly love
Shakespeare came back into vogue.
Not just a literary movement...
draws from ancient Greece and Rome
"Age of Reason" vs. Romantic
The Death of Marat
Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog
Caspar David Friedrich
Emphasized internal order/balance
Musicians: Mozart, Franz Joseph Haydn
Emphasized expression of feelings
Musicians: Franz Lizst, Frederic Chopin
"Age of Reason" vs. Romantic
Symphony No. 25 in G Minor
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
American Romantic Writers ...
as a place of
moral corruption, poverty and death
Looked to the
past for guidance
Focused on the
Sentimentalized the old (folk legend and myth)
Development of slums and poverty (Industrial Revolution) turned people away from Rationalism.
As a reaction to Rationalism or the "Age of Reason."
Nature can punish or reward
Often set apart from society
Static characters (little development)
Universe presented as:
Characteristics of Romantic Writing:
Uses formal language
Impacted by the supernatural
Description provides strong tone
Plot often involves:
honor and integrity
idealism of self
Notable Romantic Writers
The Return of Rip Van Winkle
The Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane
Death/Loss of loved ones
Tone and Topics:
"Sub-genre" of Romanticism
Focused on the perceived
of the human soul:
Humans as inherently selfish
Began the Gothic movement
Violent or morbid
Physically & psychologically tormented
The arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry that creates a rhythm.
unit of meter measurement consisting of two or more syllables
a line of poetry consisting of eight trochees or trochaic feet (total of 16 syllables).
Devices to Identify