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Chapter 1 Nutrition Overview
Transcript of Chapter 1 Nutrition Overview
Why do we choose the foods we do?
What motivates our food choices?
and other values
Ethnic Heritage and Tradition
Positive and negative associations
Body Weight and image
a. Calcium and vitamin D added to orange juice
b. Whole grains reduce risk for heart disease
c. Phytochemicals found in certain plant sources can benefit health.
Whole, modified or fortified foods
Support the Growth, maintenance and repair of tissues
Essential nutrients are
The only way to maintain a healthy body is
to continually replenish it with
These nutrients yield energy (Kilocalories)
The body needs them in large amounts every day
The six classes of Nutrients are
Nutrient Composition of the Body
Carbohydrates = 4 kilocalories per gram
Protein = 4 kilocalories per gram
Fat = 9 kilocalories per gram
The energy-yielding nutrients
Alcohol is not a nutrient!
Yields energy = 7 kilocalories per gram
Food (carbohydrates, fat and protein) is broken down to yield energy and materials for building body tissues
Nutrients are broken down into small particles
Chemical bonds are broken
Some of the energy is required for
Any excess energy is stored as
Water- soluble include Vitamin C and the B vitamins
Fat - soluble include Vitamins A, D, E and K
Almost every bodily action requires assistance
Co-factors and Facilitators
Vulnerable to destruction by
heat and chemicals.
Do not yield energy
16 essential minerals
Medium for nearly all body activities!
Foundation is built on the sciences of biology, biochemistry and physiology
The Science of Nutrition
Tremendous growth in the last 50 years
How dietary intake affects gene activity
flip genome "on" or "off"
How genes affect the relationship between food and disease
risk for developing nutrition related diseases
Conducting Research using the Scientific Method
Controls are untreated
Randomization is choosing without bias
Sample size - the larger the better
Placebos = sugar pill
when neither the researcher nor subject know the control or experimental groups
Cross-sectional studies make observations
Case-control studies compare two groups
Cohort Studies collect data over a period of time
Laboratory - based animal studies
Laboratory - based in vitro studies
Human intervention clinical trials
Analyze the evidence
So, the research is complete. What's next?
Correlations - only prove association
Positive = A increases while B increases
Negative = A increases while B decreases
No correlation - A and B are not associated
Cautious interpretations and conclusions
Do not make generalizations
Look out for confounding variables
Undergo Peer Review
Research must have validity or concrete evidence to support the hypothesis
How does research become published?
Findings are preliminary when published
not meaningful by themselves
must be replicated
DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES (DRI'S)?
What are the
Set standards defined for
other dietary components
Recommendations apply to all healthy people but may be different for specific groups
The DRI's Include:
EAR - Estimated Average Requirement
RDA - Recommended Dietary Allowance
AI - Adequate Intake
UL - Tolerable Upper Intake Level
EER - Estimated Energy Requirement
AMDR - Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
Average amount sufficient for half of population
to meet the needs
of 98% of all healthy
Used when there is not enough data to create
point where nutrient is
likely to be toxic
Average kcalorie intake to maintain a healthy body weight and physical activity
45-65 % Carbohydrate
20-35 % Fat
10-35 % Protein
Signs and symptoms of malnutrition:
Nutrition Assessment for the Individual
How can you tell if you have a nutrient deficiency?
Nutrient Deficiencies and excesses over time can lead to malnutrition.
Create a "total picture" of the individual by gathering:
historical data such as health status, drug use, diet history
anthropometric measurements including height and weight
physical examinations including hair, skin and nail beds
laboratory tests such as blood
How do we assess an individual for nutrient
Nutrition Assessment - Individual Level
National Nutrition Monitoring Program
coordinates two major surveys
Nutrition Assessment - Population Level
How can we find out the health of the nation?
Bean and cheese burrito (about 100 grams)
6 grams fat
6 x 9 = 54
30 grams of CHO
30 x 4 = 120
8 grams of PRO
8 x 4 = 32
Slice of Dominos’ pepperoni pizza ( about 75 grams)
8 gram of total fat
8 x 9 = 72
24 grams of CHO
24 x 4 = 96
9 grams of PRO
9 x 4 = 36
Uses survey research to collect data on foods people eat and people’s health status.
Data collected is used for:
1. nutrition policy
2. food assistance programs
3. food supply regulation
Healthy People 2020
1. National public health initiative under USD Health and human services
2. Published every 10 years
3. Identifies the most significant threats to health
4. Focuses efforts on eliminating these threats
From the surveys national health goals are made...
Show an increase in:
1.Fast food intake
3.Consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks
4.Risk for overweight and obesity
The surveys also tell us about national trends in food intake and eating habits...
Food is a major player in supporting health!
Diet and Health
Chronic disease is at epidemic levels
multiple factors over multiple years