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Chapter 1 Nutrition Overview

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by

Christy Vergara

on 18 August 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 1 Nutrition Overview

Influences on food choices...
Why do we choose the foods we do?
What motivates our food choices?

Taste
Religious beliefs
and other values

Cost
Genetics
Habits
Ethnic Heritage and Tradition
Positive and negative associations
Social interaction
Body Weight and image
Other influences
.
a. Calcium and vitamin D added to orange juice

b. Whole grains reduce risk for heart disease

c. Phytochemicals found in certain plant sources can benefit health.
Functional Foods
Whole, modified or fortified foods
Support the Growth, maintenance and repair of tissues
The Nutrients
Essential nutrients are
Indespensible!
The only way to maintain a healthy body is
to continually replenish it with
and water!
The
Macro
nutrients...
Carbohydrates
Protein
Dietary Fat
Water
These nutrients yield energy (Kilocalories)
The body needs them in large amounts every day

Minerals
The
Micro
nutrients
Inorganic
Vitamins
Organic
Organic
The six classes of Nutrients are
:
In summary...
1. Carbohydrates
2. Protein
3. Fat
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
Nutrient Composition of the Body
Carbohydrates = 4 kilocalories per gram

Protein = 4 kilocalories per gram

Fat = 9 kilocalories per gram
The energy-yielding nutrients
Alcohol is not a nutrient!
Yields energy = 7 kilocalories per gram
Food (carbohydrates, fat and protein) is broken down to yield energy and materials for building body tissues
Metabolism
Nutrients are broken down into small particles
Chemical bonds are broken
Some of the energy is required for
Any excess energy is stored as
Body Fat
Homeostasis

Water- soluble include Vitamin C and the B vitamins
Fat - soluble include Vitamins A, D, E and K
The Vitamins
Almost every bodily action requires assistance
from vitamins!
Co-factors and Facilitators
Vulnerable to destruction by
heat and chemicals.
Do not yield energy
The Minerals
Indestructible
16 essential minerals
Medium for nearly all body activities!
WATER
Foundation is built on the sciences of biology, biochemistry and physiology
The Science of Nutrition
Tremendous growth in the last 50 years
Nutritional genomics
How dietary intake affects gene activity
flip genome "on" or "off"
Nutri-genetics
How genes affect the relationship between food and disease
risk for developing nutrition related diseases
Conducting Research using the Scientific Method
Research Studies
Controls are untreated
Randomization is choosing without bias
Sample size - the larger the better
Placebos = sugar pill
Double-blind experiments
when neither the researcher nor subject know the control or experimental groups
most accurate
Cross-sectional studies make observations
Epidemiological Studies
Case-control studies compare two groups
Cohort Studies collect data over a period of time
Laboratory - based animal studies
Experimental Studies
Laboratory - based in vitro studies
Human intervention clinical trials
Analyze the evidence
So, the research is complete. What's next?
Correlations - only prove association
Positive = A increases while B increases
Negative = A increases while B decreases
No correlation - A and B are not associated
Cautious interpretations and conclusions
Do not make generalizations
Look out for confounding variables
Undergo Peer Review
Research must have validity or concrete evidence to support the hypothesis
How does research become published?
Findings are preliminary when published
not meaningful by themselves
must be replicated
DRI committee...
DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES (DRI'S)?
What are the
Set standards defined for
energy nutrients
other dietary components
physical activity
Recommendations apply to all healthy people but may be different for specific groups
The DRI's Include:

EAR - Estimated Average Requirement
RDA - Recommended Dietary Allowance
AI - Adequate Intake
UL - Tolerable Upper Intake Level
EER - Estimated Energy Requirement
AMDR - Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
Body
Body
Body
Body
Body
Body
Body
Body
Body
Body
EAR
Average amount sufficient for half of population
RDA
Recommendations
to meet the needs
of 98% of all healthy
people.
AI
Used when there is not enough data to create
RDA
UL
point where nutrient is
likely to be toxic
EER
Average kcalorie intake to maintain a healthy body weight and physical activity
AMDR
45-65 % Carbohydrate
20-35 % Fat
10-35 % Protein
Signs and symptoms of malnutrition:
Diarrhea
Skin rashes
Fatigue
neurological symptoms
hair loss
brittle nails
leg cramps
Nutrition Assessment for the Individual
How can you tell if you have a nutrient deficiency?
Nutrient Deficiencies and excesses over time can lead to malnutrition.
Create a "total picture" of the individual by gathering:
historical data such as health status, drug use, diet history
anthropometric measurements including height and weight
physical examinations including hair, skin and nail beds
laboratory tests such as blood
How do we assess an individual for nutrient
imbalances?
Nutrition Assessment - Individual Level
National Nutrition Monitoring Program
coordinates two major surveys
Nutrition Assessment - Population Level
How can we find out the health of the nation?

Bean and cheese burrito (about 100 grams)

6 grams fat
6 x 9 = 54

30 grams of CHO
30 x 4 = 120

8 grams of PRO
8 x 4 = 32

Total calories?
Calculations....
Calculations...
Slice of Dominos’ pepperoni pizza ( about 75 grams)

8 gram of total fat
8 x 9 = 72
24 grams of CHO
24 x 4 = 96
9 grams of PRO
9 x 4 = 36

Total kilocalories?
Uses survey research to collect data on foods people eat and people’s health status.

Data collected is used for:

1. nutrition policy

2. food assistance programs

3. food supply regulation
Healthy People 2020

1. National public health initiative under USD Health and human services

2. Published every 10 years

3. Identifies the most significant threats to health

4. Focuses efforts on eliminating these threats
From the surveys national health goals are made...
Show an increase in:
1.Fast food intake
2.Portion sizes
3.Consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks
4.Risk for overweight and obesity
The surveys also tell us about national trends in food intake and eating habits...
Food is a major player in supporting health!
Diet and Health
Chronic disease is at epidemic levels
multiple factors over multiple years
Six classes
http://www.thealternativedaily.com/obesity-in-father-visits-next-generation/
Full transcript