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Transcript of World Religions
Leaders Beliefs, ethnics, instilled values, and
morals Laws, Order, Rules,
and Commandments Deity(s), God(s),
and Goddesses Different Versions or Sects Landmarks, places of worship and religious sites Sacred Texts and Objects Rituals Religious holidays/festivals/ ceremonies There is no set date to when Hinduism was started, but its roots were traced back to 4000 years ago. Around 1500 B.C.E. Aryans invaded the Indus Valley civilizations from the north, and the two civilizations mixed to create the roots of modern Hinduism. Hinduism's origins are in north, central, and western India, but Hinduism has now spread all around the world. This is a map
that shows Hinduisms origins Time Line "2800-2000 BCE- Indus Valley civilization.
1200-900 BCE- Early Vedic Period - earliest Vedas are compiled.
800-300 BCE- The 11 major Upanishads are written, which include the ideas of reincarnation and karma.
500 BCE-1000- Epics and Puranas are written, reflecting the rise of devotional movements dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and [Brahma].
5th cent. BCE-Rise of devotional movements, puja (worship) rituals, and idea of equality of devotees.
870-1280- Cholas dynasty. Hinduism arises in the south.
1915Gandhi joins the nationalist movement.
1947India regains independence, but its partitioning leads to conflicts between Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs.
1948Assassination of Gandhi.
1950Constitution of the Republic of India." said by http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/timeline.htm There is no single founder of Hinduism. There are multiple founders from both Aryan ans Indus valley civilizations. Founders Spiritual Leaders The spiritual leaders are priests called Brahmins who are the highest in the cast system. Life/ After life Samsara: the cycle of birth and rebirth; when you die, your soul is reborn in another body, human or animal
Karma: how you are reborn, depending on your actions in your previous life
Dharma: righteous or moral conduct which puts you on the road to good karma; what you are supposed to accomplish
Moksha: breaking free of Samsara; gaining liberty or freedom
Nirvana: joining or becoming part of Brahman, the supreme lord. Bodies are cremated after death so the fire could carry the souls to be reborn. Hindu Philosophy is the belief that there is one divine reality and all other religions are just variations of the divine reality. Morals To achieve good Karma or Dharma you
you must have moral conduct.
Marrying in your cast
Revering or considering higher casts to be your superiors
Doing good or helpful deeds
Not eating meat since animals especially cattle are sacred.
Try not to kill since everything is a
part of Brahman. Rules There are no set of rules or book of laws for being Hindu because Hinduism allows one to choose their own path according to Hindu Philosophy. Order The Caste system is a pyramid or chart that shows the classes or social order for being a Hindu. You are born into your class. Not Set, But Followed Rules All sects or versions don’t have to, but typically do believe in samsara. Many Hindus are vegetarians because they are anti violence and cattle is sacred and everything is part of Brahman. The Supreme Lord is Brahman The 3 Manifestations of Brahman Brahma The Creator Vishnu The preserver and protector Shiva Destroyer Incarnations Three Incarnations Three Incarnations Krishna Rama The Four heads Symbolize the four corners of the Earth Half Open Eyes: represent the world is at rest (no end or beginning). Hinduism tolerates people studying various different gods and there are no specific times you have to worship them because of Hindu Philosophy. What Is The Difference In Sects The amount of gods believed in (one, many, none)
Level of gods (Brahman, Manifestation, Incarnation)
When and where they worship (occasionally, everyday, at home, temples)
They all believe in Samsara Primary Belief/ Worship Every sect believes in samsara,krahma. etc. Temples/ Mandirs Each mandir is dedicated to one specific god. A statue of this god is located in the holiest part of the mandir. Shrines There are shrines on street corners, around temples, and in houses for private worship. Worshiped Places The Jumna and Ganges river are worshiped because that is where the Kurushetra War happened (Mahabarata and Hinduism started afterwords). Hindu Philosophy: You are not required to worship in any specific place or time. Epic Poems Mahabharata It is acollection of stories centered around one main story that tells of a war between the two royal families Kauravas (Dravidians, evil cousins) and Pandavas (Aryans) Ramayana Tells how incarnation Rama rescues wife Ravana from the evil demon king. Bhagavad Gita It is part of the Mahabharata. In the story, Krishna told Arjuna not to be sad about killing his cousins because samsara will let them live again, this conversation takes place on the battlefield before the start of the Kurukshetra war. Which is a war between Aryans and Dravidians to see who would rule the Ganges and Jumna Rivers. It is thought of as a guide to Hindu theology that is used to inspire people to achieve nirvana. Sacred Statues Statues are made sacred for ever, a certain amount of time(festival), or until they are broken.There is a sacred statue of the god each temple is dedicated to in the holiest part of each temple. Temple Weddings Bodies are cremated after death so the fire could carry the souls to be reborn. Visiting the temple or worshiping on some sort of basis. Taking off shoes when entering the temple Women covering heads as sign of respect. Prasad: offerings of fruit, flowers, and incense taken to the statue of the god or goddess the temple is dedicated too. Have many ceremonies and rituals. Prasad Already Mentioned in slide 57. Diwali Festival of lights in October and November Holi Festival marking beginning of spring in March or April Dussehra Festival marking Rama’s triumph over evil in the Ramayana, held in September Summary Works Cited Statue of Brahman Painting of Krishna and Arjuna From the Bhagavad Gita Shiva Statue with Yogic Eyes Household Shrine Object Hinduism Today Hindus Today in USA: About 1.5 million, according to the data gathered in 2010. Hindus Today in the World: about 940,849,576, but every second at least one person becomes a Hindu. It is the third biggest religion in the world behind Christianity and Islam by only a little The Hindu population is growing everyday Hinduism has effected our World culture and history in many ways. So many people practice Hinduism. It is also the oldest know religion. Hinduism started the basic concepts of Karma, Samsara or reincarnation, dharma, and nirvana (becoming one with god or going to haven). Today most of these concepts are pretty well know. Hinduism started very popular concepts and ways of thinking that have branched off into almost every religion. Current Hindu Events Some current Hindu events or rituals are:
Having a prayer room
Applying Holy Ash Articles: Images: "Brahmanism." Digital Image. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Hinduism,. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
"Hindu Caste." Digital Image. http://swilliams24.wordpress.com/cultural-analysis-ancient-india’s-creation-myths-and-caste-system-influence/.Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
"Holy Brahman." Digital Image. http://freethoughtpedia.com/wiki/Brahman.Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
"Four- Armed Vishnu." Digital Image. http://www.panasianbiz.com/asia/asia-news-only/reincarnation-of-hindu-god-vis/.Web. & Oct. 2012.
"Brahma." Digital Image. http://www.muktinath.org/hinduism/brahma.htm. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
"Krishna." Photograph. http://neemyd.blogspot.com/2011/01/mahabharata-sacred-hindu-text.html. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
"Rama."Digital Image. http://www.theholidayspot.com/ramnavami/. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
" Brahman Statue." Photograph. http://deitchman.com/mcneillslides/units.php?unit=%20Non-Western%20Arts. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
"Krishna and Arjuna." Photograph. http://www.flickr.com/photos/arjuna/260050015/. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
"Shiva Statue." Photograph. http://services.flikie.com/view/v3/android/wallpapers/33570974. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.
"Small shrine Object." Photograph. http://www.dailykos.com/story/2009/11/01/797966/-The-Mad-. Web. 7 Oct. 2012. Hinduism's Origins
are in the brighter yellow part of the map. “Golden Hinduism Statue.” Photograph. http://www.fotolia.com/id/26799786 Web. 7 Oct. 2012. Everyday Cerimonies Ceremonies almost everyday, but nobody celebrates them all such as Honoring a statue or participating in a Samskaras that mark important events in a Hindu’s life (examples:10 days after baby’s birth is a naming ceremony, at an age of 9 or 10 boys from top 3 casts are honored with sacred thread to mark becoming a man). Religious Tolerence.org Ontarion Consultance on Religious tolerence. Hinduism: The world's third largest religion. 16 February 2012. 7 October 2012 <http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism.htm>.
Anonymous. Religion Facts. 8 February 2007. 7 October 2012 <http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/timeline.htm>.
Author, No. "Hindu Rituals and Rutines Why Do We Follow Them?" Hiaku. Denis Thomas, 2012. 0-22.
Pandit, Bansi, Hindu Dieties. 2012. 7 October 2012 <http://www.koausa.org/Gods/>.
Malaysia Hindudharma Mamandram. World Hindu Population. 2008. 7 October 2012 <http://www.mamandram.org/tools/world-hindu-population.html >.
Ganeri, Anita. Religions Explained: A beginner's Guide to World Faiths. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1997.
Thomas, Dennis. "Introduction to Hinduism." Lecture. Atlanta: Atlanta Girls School, 2012. 0. This is a mandir dedicated to Shiva. There is a statue of Shiva inside. A compiled set of scriptures and beliefs that bring sects or versions of Hinduism together. 1300 B.C.E. Vedas Buddhism Historical
Introduction Introduction Worship and Beliefs Followers
Statistics Art and Symbols Current Events Summary Origins of
Buddhism Time Line Founder Start The religion of Buddhism started outside the walls of the kingdom of Siddhartha Gautama in North East India. Spread
Buddhism was spread to the Deccan by the Maurya from 321- 185 B.C. Also, it spread when Buddhism divided into two sects. During that time is spread to China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Thailand, Tibet Bhutan, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia. The Buddhism religion has impacted the world in many ways. It has created a world religion practiced by many. It has also created an awareness of suffering, greed, desire, and need for deeper thought. This deeper thought is found through meditation, which is a widely practiced concept. Meditation helps people relax and reflect. It has also taught people how to follow a path in which there are no severances. On the World history aspect of things, is has created a time period in which India was unified, the spread of beliefs, and legends based on truth. They have also been accepted as part of Hinduism, which has made a great impact on the world. Buddhism has had a great impact on the world and is still growing today. Lotus Symbol Swastika Mandala Stupas and Temples Shrines Means spiral perfection and mental purity represented by the lotus floating above the mud. The swastika represents good fortune, Buddha's footprints and heart. A device used to aid meditation both in the making and in the studying of the circular device. Stupas are dome shaped temples that were once just mounds. These are where shrines are held to worship and respect Buddha and meditate with other Buddhist. An area dedicated to a Buddha or a special Buddhist belief that are typically in a stupa, but less extravagant ones can be seen in houses. Statistics Current ways of Practicing There are around 400 million current followers of Buddhism. It continuously grew throughout history and still is growing. It has combined with many adherents of different religions such as Hinduism making its numbers grow largely. Buddhism is less closely followed today then it used to be. Most people belong to the Mahayana division referred to in the intro. The Four Noble Truths Before you learn the lessons of Buddha you must first understand the Four Noble Truths 1. All of life is suffering, mental and physical. You can find real happiness, but it is impermanent.
2. The cause of suffering is desire, caused by ignorance, caused by illusion.
3. To end suffering you must rid the body of all desire, the more you rid the happier you become, once totally rid you had achieved nirvana.
4. To rid the body of desire you must avoid indulgence and denial though the middle or eight-fold path (the lute). The Eight Fold Path The Eight Fold path must be followed to rid the body of desire. Wisdom
Right understanding (4 nobles)
Right thought (kind of life leading to caring and unselfishness)
Right speech (speak in kind truthful ways)
Right action (respect)
Right job (do not harm)
Right effort (best to avoid evil and do and promote good)
Right self-awareness (control your mind to see clearly)
Right meditation (gain enlightenment) The Middle Path The middle path was first created when Buddha realized that strings on a lute sounded bad when they were too loose or too tight. This path is the idea that to achieve nirvana you must live a life between devoted pleasure and a life devoted to self- denial, between extremes, living in the moment, moderation. Enlightenment Through meditation The ultimate goal of a Buddha is nirvana which is ultimate enlightenment or goal, release from the cycle of rebirth, equal to Buddha which has the qualities of perfect wisdom and great compassion. You are enlighten through a series of understanding and meditation. Monks and Nuns Monks and nuns practice meditation, self awareness, give up possession to have deeper understanding in China, India and a few smaller places around the World. In addition to these traditional monk and nun practices they dedicate their brains to science for studying. Occupy Tibet Tibet always respected China's power, but never thought themselves to be part of China. Tibetans are abused, suffer, and are mistreated. China claims Tibet isn't so kind to them either, but that hasn't been proven. Dalai Llama thinks if everyone follows a more positive path, China and Tibet would be better off. New Dalai Llama Dalai Llama is a refuge that escaped to India. He is the Buddhist leader. Before the Dalai Llama dies, everyone needs to find a new suitor for Dalai Llama, but the problem is China claims to have found one and India claims to have found one, and so have others. Who will be the real Dalai 15th Llama? The founder of Buddhism is Siddhartha Gautama, also know as Buddha. Siddhartha was prophesied to become a wandering holy man or a great a leader. Siddhartha became Buddha after discovering suffering during his mid- teens. He took a long journey to find himself, (to be enlightened )and he did through meditation for a month under the Bodhi Tree. He was now Buddha and he taught the lessons of Buddhism. Map Divisions Social Life Goals and Gods The religion of Buddhism started outside the walls of a kingdom in North East India and was spread from there by many other kingdoms around India and the world. Thervada Mahayana The way of the devoted monks and nuns that follows closely to Buddha’s original teachings that now are located in Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. Practices are easier for common folks to follow, where Buddha is thought of as a god and there are many levels of heaven and hell, and are now located in Nepal, Vietnam, Japan, China, Korea, and India. Caste System Marriage There is no caste system, so you can achieve enlightenment no matter what family you are born into in this life. Buddhism encourages people to give up possessions and desire. For this reason nuns, monks, and others of the Thervada division do not get married. Gods Buddha doesn't want his followers to think of him as a god but as a teacher. He wants them to follow his teachings. Enlightenment You reach Nirvana by following life through Buddha's teachings. Nirvana is ultimate enlightenment, released from the cycle of rebirths, equality to Buddha, and having the qualities of perfect wisdom and great compassion. Order 566 B.C.E- Buddha's Birth
485 B.C.E- Buddha's death
270 B.C.E - Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism
315 C.E.- Golden Age with many advances to religious beliefs
1391 C.E.- Gedun Drupa, the first Dalai Llama is born.
1935 C.E.- Current and 14th Dalai Llama was born.
1949 C.E.- Chinese invasion in Tibet Siddhartha Gautama Birth Born a prince in 566 B.C.E Siddhartha was prophesied to be a holy man or political leader. He was shielded from the outside world, so he would become a political leader. Discovering Suffering In his mid- teens Siddhartha discovered suffering on a journey. He saw a old man, a sick man, a corpse, and a holy man. This was all new to Siddhartha. He left the palace to find the end of suffering (wandering holy man), and found enlightenment under the Bodhi after meditating there for 48 days straight. He was now Buddha. Death Siddhartha died at age 80 in 486 B.C.E. from old age and food poisoning. Buddha.net. buddhist studies: statisics on buddhists. 2008. 27 January 2013 <http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history/bud_statwrld.htm>.Unknown. An Interview. 27 January 2013 <http://www.friendsoftibet.org/main/intervw.html>.—. Conversion of Emperor Asoka. 2004. 27 January 2013 <http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/history/asoka.htm>.—. THe Dalai Llamas. 27 January 2013 <http://www.dalailama.com/biography/the-dalai-lamas>. Works Cited Hinduism Buddhism Wheel of Dharma It stands for the eightfold path, and each spoke stands for a different one of the steps of the eightfold path/ Buddha's lessons. Asoka Asoka was the grandson of the founder of the Maurya. He converted to Buddhism after the expansion of the Maurya to the Deccan the resulted in the Kiligan War and the death of 1000s. He didn't like this so he became Buddhist. He coaxed people into converting, set up: missionaries, pillars (announcing laws and righteous government), rest houses, roads, hospitals, wells, and planted crops in other countries. Asoka's acts temporarily united India. Golden Age This is an age 500 years after Maurya where there were many advances and union throughout India were made ruled by the Gupta Dynasty. They made advances in math, medics, architecture, literature, paintings, and carvings. Christianity Historical Introduction
and Origins Basic Information Divisions Worship Statistics Art and Symbols Sacred Texts Current Events Origins Time Line Key Dates Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Palestine or Modern day Israel as a Jew. From the age of 30 he was baptized and became a Christian. He then spread God’s message far across the Middle East. After his death, his disciples, Jesus’ first 12 followers who completed missionary work, continued to spread his message further than the Middle East and into Rome. Beginning Map Map of Spread This map shows the Origins of Christianity (Jesus’ time) and the spread of Christianity (by Jesus’ disciples). This map shows the where there is Christianity today and the level of the intensity of Christianity in areas according to the September 2011 Joshua Project. 1. Jesus Birth in Bethlehem by the Virgin Mary and Carpenter Joseph (unknown date)
2. He was brought up as a Jew in Nazareth
3. 30 years after Birth he was baptized by his cousin John becoming a Christian.
4. He spread God’s message and healed people
5. The last supper where Jesus gave his disciples blessed wine and bread the night before his was to be crucified.
6. 3 days later he resurrected from his tomb
7. 40 days later he ascended into heaven.
8. After Jesus’ death and resurrection people have had a day of worship every week (Sundays). There are three main divisions of Christianity were created at different times. The orthodox Christians were the first, that follow very close to Jesus’ original teachings and traditions. Orthodox Christians Roman Catholic The Roman Catholics were established Matthew 16:18 (a gospel) when Christ was said to have appointed Peter as the first Pope, but historically around 65-300 CE. Then came the Protestants. The first group of Protestants was founded during the 16 century CE. Protestants Origins of Jesus Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Palestine or Modern day Israel as a Jew. From the age of 30 he was baptized and became a Christian. He then spread God’s message far across the Middle East. After his death, his disciples, Jesus’ first 12 followers who completed missionary work, continued to spread Holy Trinity Most Christians believe in the Holy Trinity also known as God the Father (creator of everything), God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit or Ghost (God's presence on Earth). Afterlife You go to H-e-l-l if you have many sins, wrong actions against God, people, etc., or if you did something extremely wrong or bad. H-e-l-l is thought of as below and is not everlasting salvation, but everlasting work. If you are relieved of or have not done all/ any sins you go to Heaven. Heaven is thought of as above, and is everlasting salvation with God. Society All men and women are equal before God. This is true in current times, but not in Medieval Times. In Medieval Times, all Men and Women were equal before God, but women were not thought of as equal outside of the church. Women came from the troublemaker Eve and needed the guidance of men, prayed to Mary instead of God, and hoped to be pure just like Mary. As said before there are 3 main divisions or sects of Christianity. Orthodox Christians Orthodox Christians claim to follow closely to the original/ earliest traditions and teaching of Jesus and his Disciples. Roman Catholic Roman Catholics make up over 50% of the Christian population. The Church is led by the Pope who lives in the Vatican in Rome. This religion started around 5-300 CE. The Church of the East clams to be the first church of the Roman Catholics. Protestants Protestant is a large sect. It has many different divisions such as Methodist. It is named after the people who protested against the Roman Catholic Church, but were still believed in Christian ways. Protestant Division Methodists Methodism has a democratic system in which Churches that are participants in a national convention. Certain branches of the Christian faith Methodism have bishops, but others do not instead have Preachers/ Pastors/ Reverends. Duties are divide amongst the people of the church such as: exhorters (that hold meetings, participate in the Church, discuss financial matters, have prayer), local preachers (who read sermons and scriptures as Sunday services and throughout the week), and itinerant preachers (who are strictly ministers that travel to churches to preach). There is a convention every 4 years held to discuss and determine theology. Methodist believe in the Holy Trinity, baptism, communion, and the Holy Bible. Protestant Division
Lutheran Lutherans make up a huge portion of Protestants. Lutherans are Christians that follow Martin Luther, a monk’s, teachings. Martin Luther’s teachings are close to the Bible, for he didn’t like the inconsistency of Roman Catholic teaching compared with the Bible. Summary Christianity has had a big impact on World culture. It has created a way of life for monks and nuns. It has also created a large religion with many sects, that over 1/3 of the world practices from the teaching of a single man, Jesus/ God. This religion has many religious holidays that are celebrated worldwide. These holidays are practiced in ways that do not have a direct relation to Christianity, but the basis of them are from important dates in Christian history. This religion has changed many peoples view on life, creation, sins, and death. The holidays, practices, and beliefs of Christianity are world known and have had a profound impact on how people live their lives and conduct themselves. Holy Trinity Prayers Church Communion Christians believe in one God whom was the creator of everything, but they believe he come in 3 forms. Christians pray to this God and follow his believed teachings.
i.God the Father- creator of everything
ii.God the Sun- Jesus
iii.God the Holy Spirit/ Ghost- his presence in the world. Prayers are normally used as a form of speaking to God. They are said during Church (alone and with the whole congregation) and during people’s everyday lives. They normally are composed of Thanks to God, asking for help, and end in Amen. Church is the house of God. People gather there on Sunday for a day of rest and worship. A Church service is composed of a Priest, pastor, or minister telling a sermon, the saying of prayers, hymns, Bible readings, and communion. There are also other weekly events throughout the week in different churches (such as a night of supper and prayer), but these events vary. Communion is when you are served bread (the body of Christ shed for you) and wine/ grape juice (the blood of Christ shed for you) from the church on Sundays that represents Jesus’ last supper (Passover) before he was crucified. Different churches hold this event at different frequencies (weekly, monthly, etc.). Starting Population Growing Population Population Today Christianity started with just a few followers, Jesus and his disciples. Jesus gained more Christian followers as he healed people and preached the word of God. Christianity grew after Jesus' death because his disciples and followers spread his teaching far. Today there are over 2.1 billion Christians Worldwide. That is over 1/3 of the world’s population. The density of Christianity varies over the world. The Cross The Cross symbolizes how Jesus was crucified. Communion Bread and Wine/ Grape juice is a symbol for the last supper. The Five-pointed star The five pointed star is the star of Bethlehem standing for the incarnation of Jesus. Nativity Scenes Nativity scenes represent Baby Jesus sleeping in the manger after birth having gifts bestowed upon him by the 3 wise men with an angel blessing Jesus, Mary, and Joseph. Christmas Presents Christmas Presents under the Christmas tree stand for the presents the 3 wise men brought the Baby Jesus. The Bible Hymnals The bible a collection of 66 books.
It has 2 sections: the New and the Old Testaments. The Old Testament The Old Testament contains ancient Jewish scriptures The New Testament The New Testament is written by Christians in years after Jesus’ death, accounts of Jesus’ teachings. It Contains the Gospels which are the first the first 4 books of the New Testament contributed by Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John (disciples). Hymnals are books of hymns or religious songs, that talk about religious beliefs Christmas Christmas is December 25, Celebration of Jesus’ birth (no known date) Many Christian Holidays celebrate Jesus’ life, death, resurrection, and ascendency. There are other Christian holidays not having to do with Jesus, but they vary Epiphany Epiphany is 6 days after Christmas, and represents the wise men bringing gifts to the baby Jesus. Lent Lent is a period before Easter where Christians remember their sins. Holy Week Holy week is a holiday one week before Easter Good Friday Good Friday is when Christians remember the day that Jesus’ died. It stands for Jesus’ good dying to save others. Easter Easter is one of the most important holidays to Christians where Christians remember Jesus raising from the dead. (Eggs are given as a symbol of new life). Feast of Ascension The Feast of Ascension is 40 days after Easter which marks Jesus’ ascension Communion Communion- represents the Last Supper before Jesus’ crucifix where he blessed bread: The body of Christ and blessed wine: The blood of Christ . Works Cited Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. What Do Lutherans Believe. 10 April 2013 <http://www.elca.org/What-We-Believe/The-Basics/What-Lutherans-Believe.aspx>.Gast, Walter E. Symbols in Christian Art & Artchitecture A Resource for Learning the Sign Language of the Faith. 2000. 10 April 2013 <http://www.planetgast.net/symbols/stars/stars.html>.Grevillea. How Many Christians are there worldwide. 2013. 10 April 2013 <Grevillea >.Melton, James L. The Plain Truth about the Roman Catholic Church. 1998. 10 April 2013 <http://www.biblebelievers.com/jmelton/Catholic.html >.NA. Methodists. 10 April 2013 <http://www.saintaquinas.com/Methodists.html>. Christianity