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Islamic Republic of Iran

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andra dinca

on 18 April 2013

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Transcript of Islamic Republic of Iran

trigonometry

medicine: Avicenna

batteries

Suez Canal

polo game

backgammon

First Banking System of the World - capital: Teheran
- Area: 1,648,195 km2 (18th place)
- Population: 75 million (18th place)

- language: Persian/Farsi
(also in Afghanistan
- Dari and Tajikistan
- Tajiki)
- Calling code: +98
- Internet TLD: .ir
- currency: rial

- Ethnic groups: Persian 61%, Azeri 16%, Kurd 10%, Lur 6%, Baloch 2%, Arab 2%, Turkmen and Turkic tribes 2%, other 1% - Religion: Muslim (official) 98% (Shia 89%, Sunni 9%) and other (Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Baha'i) 2% Islamic Republic of Iran 2
The Middle Ages
(652–1501 AD) General aspects "Persia" 1935 "Iran"= "Land of the Aryans"
"Iran"=Noble Leaders:

- chief of state: Supreme Leader
Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei (since 4 June 1989, for life) - Location: Middle East: three spheres of Asia (West, Central, and South)
- strategic location: Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport "Allah Akbar" X11 "Allah" color of Islam honesty and peace bravery and martyrdom tulip=martyrdom Zoroastrianism

- an ancient Iranian religion (648–330 BCE), which influenced Islam, Christianity and Judaism
- there is one universal and transcendent God, Ahura Mazda
- good (Ahura Mazda) and evil (Angra Mainyu) have different sources
- happiness = Good Thoughts, Good Words and Good Deeds
- Avesta: the Holy book - solar calendar: modern - 622 AD (Hijra Mecca-Medina) / ancient 559 BC (Cyrus the Great)
- New Year - Nowrooz: 21th of March (the spring equinox) --> 2013=1392=2572
- Government type: theocratic republic
- Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
- Law: religious legal system based on Sharia law - head of government:
President Mahmoud AHMADINEJAD (since 3 August 2005) Iran's History in 3 stages: > Nomadic tribes from Central Asia --> 1500 B.C. in the region
> Iranian tribe - Parsa group --> below the Caspian Sea => Persia > In 559 B.C. - ruler of Persia, until 530 B.C.
> founded the ACHAEMENID EMPIRE by conquering Media, Lydia, Babylonia (Mesopotamia)
> built Persepolis
> his son, Cambyses I, conquered Egypt
> Darius I extended the Persian Empire 1
Ancient Persia
- The Beginning - > human presence in Iran since the Lower Paleolithic - Early Stone Age > Cyrus - social, religious, cultural diversity
> religious tolerance / kept his army away from the temples and restored the statues of the Babylonian gods to their sanctuaries
> Cyrus Cylinder: the first Bill of Rights / restoration of cult sanctuaries and repatriation of deported peoples in Babylon, including Jews
> main religion: Zoroastrianism
> truth! Cyrus Cylinder
the British Museum Cyrus the Great tomb of Cyrus Alexander the Great > king of Macedonia
> 334 BC, invaded the Achaemenid Empire
> the creation of a more equal society, based on Greek principles
> his soldiers - Persian brides The Sassanid Empire 224 - 651 AD Geography:
- rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins
- Zagros Mountains
- Alborz Mountains: Volcanic Mount Damavand, 5,610 m
- Dasht-e Lut, Dasht-e Kavir Culture
Iranian identity: part Persian, part Islamic, and part Western, and the paradoxes all exist together

vestiges of the life-loving Persian nature (wine, love, poetry, song) woven into the fabric of abstinence, prayer, and fatalism often associated with Islam—like a secret computer program running quietly in the background in Iran a guest is accorded the highest status, the sweetest piece of fruit, the most comfortable place to sit The Parthian Empire 247 BC – 224 AD > preserve Persian art and culture
> Silk Road - commerce
> Roman-Persian Wars: 700 years The Islamic conquest of Persia > the end of the Sassanid Empire
> the decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran
> first invasion in 633: general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia
> full invasion 644, Rashidun Caliphate
> Abbasid and Umayyad Caliphates - revival of Persian culture
> gradual conversion to Islam Zagros Mts Alborz Mts Lut Flora and Fauna
- 1/10 forest
- wildlife: bears, gazelles, wild pigs, wolves, jackals, panthers, Eurasian lynx, and foxes Climate
- arid climate
- winters are cold with heavy snowfall and subfreezing temperatures during December and January
- summers are dry and hot Other conquerors: > the Turks (999)
> the Mongols (1219)- Genghis Khan - violence: 3/4 Persian population killed + destroyed Persian Culture Persian Culture Painting Music Dancing Architecture Art: Calligraphy Persian Rug Pottery and ceramics Persian Gardens Khatam-kari Mina-kari Sculpture Jewels Religion/beliefs: Zoroastrian 3
Modern Ages
(1501-) > 1500 Shah Ismail I - Safavid D.
> forcefully converting Sunni to Shii'a Islam The Great Persian Famine of 1870–1871
> caused the death of 20–25% of Persia's population WWI - Strategic importance:
Great Britain and Russia
> Persia resisting colonization
> lost territory: north - Russia / south - Great Britain
==> turmoil Pahlavi Dynasty
> withdrawal of the British - ensure safe departure --> a new shah
> 1921 Reza Khan (Persian Cossack Brigade - shah's bodyguard division), Prime Minister of Iran, --> Shah (helped by Britain)
> modernization/Westernisation vs tribal leaders
> reforms: military, education, industry, transportation. legal system
> wanted a secular republic, as Kemal Atatürk in Turkey, vs religious leaders
> imposed family names: own example - Pahlavi (="champion"): 1925 ...Pahlavi
> 1935: University of Tehran + Persia-->Iran
+ social reform: women in Iran ==> outrage Islamic leaders
+ edict: NO! chador, NO Al-Hajj
WWII
> Britain + Russia part 2
> 1941 forced to abdicate and leave the country ==>
his son, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi (age 21) was named the new Shah Pahlavi II
> reputation as a playboy ==> easier to dominate by Britain and Russia = mistake
> eliminate foreign control
> allies: USA
> turned to Islamic clerics ==> restrictions again
> Mohammed Mossadeq - Prime Minister (Islam friendly) enemy of Shah (planned assassination=discovered)
> Shah went in exile (poor)
> returned helped by USA (CIA - supporters of Shah in Tehran)
> built a fortune of his own, strong military, secret police SAVAK - torture
> the White Revolution 1963
> the role of Islam in politics: dispute ==> 2 sides: the Shah and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Safavid Dynasty
Afsharid Dynasty
Zand Dynasty
Qajar Dynasty
Pahlavi Dynasty The 1979 Iranian Revolution USA embassy attack
- hostage crisis: 52 Americans - 444 days
- for 8 billion $ frozen (needed in Iran-Iraq war) Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) / causes:
- pre-Islamic: Achaemenid vs Babylonia
- sunni vs shiite
- allies (Iran-Russia vs Iraq-USA)- Kurdish (Iranian help - biggest pb. for Iraq)
- Gulf coastline (Iraq only 40 km)
- Gulf Waterway Iran in present times Politics Enemies / Friends Israel: Nuclear Program

U.S.A: Terrorism, Nuclear Weapons

Great Britain and Canada: Nuclear Program

Saudi Arabia: religion Turkey: Turkey - Iran pipeline

Iraq: Economy, Resources/ Both part of OPEC.

Russia: Supplier of Nuclear Resources.

Lebanon: Hezbollah - "children"

Syria: anti-american regime, military support Palestinian Authority: aid

Sudan: against Israel

North Korea: Nuclear program

China: influence, economy > ranked 17th worldwide
> 50% centrally planned
> heavily dependent on petroleum
Priority: development of non-oil exports Economy Pollution Cost of living in Tehran - Indexes Difference

Consumer Prices in Tehran are 14.34% higher than in Bucharest
Consumer Prices Including Rent in Tehran are 30.74% higher than in Bucharest
Rent Prices in Tehran are 85.73% higher than in Bucharest
Restaurant Prices in Tehran are 13.19% higher than in Bucharest
Groceries Prices in Tehran are 37.30% higher than in Bucharest
Local Purchasing Power in Tehran is 13.83% lower than in Bucharest Society Education - 91% of the Iranian adult population is literate
- women >60%
- Schools for gifted children (world-known scientists)
- primary education compulsory under the Iranian constitution.
- primary, secondary and higher education is free
- private schools
- boys/girls schools Traditions Gender roles - one of the most ancient forms of cuisine around the world
- Greek and Indian, less spicy with fresh ingredients
- healthy diet: fresh fruits, greens and vegetables
- meat (usually lamb, goat, or chicken)
- black tea
- saffron
- nuts (phystachio) Cusine Women

Rights
- progress since the Revolution
- most liberal of all muslim countries
- highly educated
- right to work (even in the goverment)
- average marriage age 21
- more legal options for initiating divorce

Restrictions
- parents control marriage
- female modesty vs public sector jobs
- no make-up in public
- clothing
- permission for leaving the country
- beaches and sports - sex-segregated
- no public appearance with other men (Females caught by revolutionary officials in a mixed-sex situation can be subject to virginity tests) Nowruz - New Year - on 21 of March (vernal equinox)
- Haft Sin (7 "S")
- 12 days
- Sizdah-bedar: 13th day - festival
- visiting family and friends
- feasts Weddings - different customs in ethnic groups Kurds Persian chelo kabab rice Clothing women men persian islamic pre-1979 Men

- providers
- emotional (more sensitive)
- power over women
- no men are allowed to be seen outdoors in shorts ==> indoor football courts Marriage

Siqeh - legalized prostitution Taarof (Iranian Politeness)

In adherence to taarof, if you are ever offered something, like a tea or sweet, even if you want it, at first decline it until their insistence becomes greater. Tourism Historical attractions Of the worlds 12 places recognized and registered as "the worlds Civilization Heritage" by UNESCO , three are located in Iran Naqsh-e-Jahan square, Esfahan Choghazanbil temple , Shush DID YOU KNOW ? The Oscar - 2012 Zoroastrian Temple, Yazd Ancient mud-brick towns Old town of Yazd Tomb of Hafez (poet), Shiraz Natural attractions Historical houses, Kashan Urban Sightseeing Milad Tower Chak Chak village, Yazd : Zoroastrian pilgrimage site Tehran Esfahan Shiraz Ancient hydraulic system, Shushtar Yazd Nasr ol Molk Mosque Mashhad Abbasi Hotel Vank Church Si-o-se pol bridge Kish Island - Persian Gulf
(more Western) World's Longest (7500m) Telecabin, Tehran Largest pistachio, saffron, caviar, handmade carpets (Persian) producer Hottest Places on Planet Earth, Dasht-e Lut, 70.7 °C 1st place for number of major earthquakes the Nose job capital of the world Invented:


modern brick

wind catchers (air conditioning)

wind mill

cookie

ice cream

courier post (Royal Road)

algebra That's all, folks! created by
ADRIANA جمهوری اس long necked lute tar, goblet drum tanbur Nuclear program - timeline 2002 - Russian technicians begin construction of Iran's first nuclear reactor at Bushehr despite strong objections from US (peaceful purposes)

2003-2006 - the International Atomic Energy Agency asks Iran to cooperate in proving it is not pursuing an atomic weapons program, but Iran refuses the cooperation, although it announces several times that it is suspending its uranium enrichment program

2006 - Iran resumes uranium enrichment at Natanz. UN Security Council votes to impose sanctions on Iran's trade in sensitive nuclear materials and technology.

2007-2010 - disputes over the nuclear program with the West

2011 - A recent IAEA report, based on the intelligence of 10 governments, presented images, letters and diagrams that suggested Iran was secretly working on nuclear weaponry.

2012 - Iran says its scientists have "tested first nuclear fuel produced from uranium from deposits inside the country". The IAEA confirms that Iran has started enriching uranium at Fordo (Qom) to purities of 20%. (>88% needed for a bomb) - need VISA: from the embassy
- might be refused the entry if you have Israeli visa, too.
- Imam Khomeini International Airport, Tehran
Full transcript