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The Rise and Spread of Islam
Transcript of The Rise and Spread of Islam
In addition to being poor, Muhammad was also an orphan. His parents died before he turned seven years old. An uncle took care of him until he grew up. Then, Muhammad went to work in Mecca’s caravan trade. Muhammad’s job took him to many other parts of the world.
When he was 25 years old, Muhammad married a wealthy widow named Khadijah. Muhammad had worked for Khadijah before they got married. After their marriage, Muhammad continued to manage caravans for Khadijah. In his free time, he walked the hills outside Mecca. Troubled by problems he saw in society, Muhammad liked to be alone to pray and think. It was during one of these trips that he heard the angel’s command to proclaim the message of God. MUHAMMAD’S LIFE GEOGRAPHY OF THE ARABIAN PENINSULA Muhammad and his people were expert traders. Merchants traveled to many parts of Asia, North Africa, and the Mediterranean Coast. They took their religion with them. In 630, Muhammad returned in triumph to Mecca. By the time of Muhammad’s death in 632, Islam had spread across the Arabian Peninsula. Muhammad united the Arabs in his region into one community. Once they were working together, they became a powerful people. Islam respected Jews and Christians. It also recognized Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others as earlier prophets. Under Islam, Jews and Christians were allowed to practice their own faiths. Monotheism = ONE God God said through the angel that people had abandoned the true faith. Instead of worshiping God alone, they worshiped many idols, or false gods. Muhammad was to pass on to the people all the messages that he would receive from God. Then the people would submit to, or agree to obey, the one true God.
Muhammad went forward with his mission from God. People who accepted his teachings came to be known as Muslims, which means “persons who submit.” Their faith came to be known as Islam, which means “submission to God.” Muhammad’s Mission People did not like the nearby Byzantine and Persian Empires. Their rulers were harsh and oppressive. The new religion promised a new way of life. How did Islam spread so far so fast? The movement of early Muslims from Mecca to Yathrib is known as the hijra, which means “the migration.” The year of the hijra, 622, became year 1 on the Muslim calendar. After the hijra, the name Yathrib was changed to Medina, which means “city” and is short for “city of the Prophet.”
FUN FACT: The Muslim calendar is currently in the year 1390! Few Meccans listened to Muhammad. They thought his teachings about the new religion threatened their old gods. Abandoning the old gods, they thought, would end Mecca’s importance as a place for worshipers.
Muhammad also taught that all people were brothers and sisters in a community established by God. This idea, too, angered the Meccans. They shouted insults at Muhammad when he preached and threw stones at his followers. As time went on, the attacks became more and more violent. Eventually, Muhammad and his followers were forced to leave the city. The Hijra: From Mecca to Medina This is the Arabic word for Muhammad The religion of Islam teaches that in about A.D. 610, a man named Muhammad went into a cave in the desert to pray. Suddenly he heard the voice of an angel cry the message from God, “Proclaim!” (To proclaim means to announce or declare something.)
Stunned, Muhammad asked, “What shall I proclaim?” The answer came quickly. He was to proclaim the one true God.
According to Muslim teaching, Muhammad was frightened at first. He was unsure that he was worthy of this mission. But he obeyed. And his acceptance of the command to “proclaim God” brought great changes to the world. Map of the Middle East Muhammad lived on the Arabian Peninsula, in the city of Mecca. Location of Mecca The Arabic written language for Allah or God The symbol of Islam A drawing of the prophet Muhammad 7th Grade World History
Ms. Hagihossein The Rise and Spread of Islam Most of the year, the Kabah is covered in black cloth. Beneath the black cloth is a stone building that holds The Black Stone. Muslims pray in the direction of the Kabah. The desert was home to many groups of Bedouins, an Arab people. The Bedouins were nomads, or people who moved from one area to another. To make a living, they herded sheep, camels, and goats.
In addition to herding animals, the Bedouins acted as guides for trade caravans. To avoid being robbed, Meccan traders often made agreements with the Bedouins. Muhammad’s great-grandfather, a wealthy merchant, helped to make these agreements.
Meccan merchants used religion to seal their alliances with the Bedouins. The merchants invited their Bedouin allies to worship in a holy place called the Kabah. The Kabah was a cube-shaped building in the center of Mecca. It held a rock known as the Black Stone, a meteorite that had fallen to the Earth from space. The Black Stone was sacred to the Meccans. Bedouins and Merchants From Mecca, caravans either traveled northwest to markets in the land we call Syria today, or they made the dangerous journey across the desert to markets in the area now known as Iraq. From Syria, goods could be shipped across the Mediterranean Sea to Europe. Mecca was a crossroads for trade during the late 500s, when Muhammad was growing up.
Goods such as perfumes, ivory, spices, silk, and precious metals such as gold were traded. An Avenue of Trade Birth of the Prophet Muhammad, Iranian Illustration Prophet Muhammad with his wife Khadijah Prophet Muhammad receiving his message from God People of Yathrib, a city north of Mecca, invited Muhammad to come to their city. They viewed him as a wise man who could settle disputes in their city. Many of them also believed that Muhammad was a prophet, or a person who carried God’s message. In 622, he and his followers went to Yathrib. Prophet Muhammad taking the Black Stone to the Kabah The Black Stone Grand Mosque in Mecca during the hajj Grand Mosque in Mecca Why is the Black Stone Important?
Even before Islam, unusual stones were used to mark places of worship. The Black Stone is a symbol of Islam because it was the Prophet Muhammad that placed the stone in the Kabah. This was the same stone that fell from Heaven to show Adam & Eve where to build an altar. This marked the first temple on Earth. Muslims believe that the stone was originally pure and dazzling white, but has since turned black because of the sins of the people. Dome of the Rock in Jeruselem
Site of the Prophet Muhammad's ascension to Heaven Within the next 100 years, Islam surged west to North Africa, Spain, and southern France. It also pushed east to the borders of northern India and China.