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Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
Transcript of Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
This was done mainly out of fear, no idealism
They joined members of the National Assembly in getting rid of the rights and privleges of the First and Second Estates, making commoners equal to the noble class and the clergy (church) Three weeks later the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
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Stated that men are born free and remain so, and have equal rights
Rights included life, liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression
Also guaranteed citizens free speech and religion, and equal justice
Women were not granted the same rights
Olympe de Gouges published a declaration of the rights of women, her ideas were rejected, she was considered an enemy of the Revolution, and eventually executed The National Assembly took over the church lands and declared church officials and priests to be elected and paid as state officials. The Catholic Church lost its lands and political influence and independence.
The reasons the assembly did this were mainly economic- had to pay off France's debts, and selling the land provided them the revenue to do so
The actions of the assembly offended many peasants, who were Catholic. They believed the Pope should rule over a church independent of the state. State Controlled Church Louis Tries to Escape After seeing how the National Assembly reconstructed the relationship between church and state, King Louis XVI wondered about his authority as monarch. Many of his supporters left the country after feeling unsafe. In June 1791 the royal family tried to escape France to the Austrian Netherlands. They were caught and his fate was sealed, as seeing him attempt to flee only increased the influence of his radical enemies. What do the speeches by the nobles imply about the role of violence in the French Revolution? Exit Slip Question 1: A Limited Monarchy In September of 1791 the National Assembly completed a new constitution for France. King Louis reluctantly accepted it. The constitution created a limited monarchy, and stripped the king, or queen, of any authority.
A new legislative body was also created called the Legislative Assembly.
Body had the power to create laws and approve or reject declarations of war.
King still held executive powers and could enforce laws Exit Slip Question Two What current bodies of the U.S. government are similar to the new Legislative Assembly and the powers granted to the king? France goes to war Because of the deteriorating situation in France, many European countries with monarchs became fearful. They thought that the revolutionary ideas in France would spread to their countries. Austria and Prussia urged the French to restore Louis to absolute monarchy status. As a result, the Legislative Assembly declared war in April of 1792.
Began badly for the French
Prussian commander insisted that no harm come to any member of the royal family
Enraged Parisians; a mob of 20,000 men and women stormed the Tuileries, where the royal family was staying. They massacred the guards and took the royal family as prisoners
Rumors began to spread in Paris that prisoners who supported the king were going to break out and seize control of Paris. Angry citizens responded by storming the prisons and murdering 1,000 prisoners in what is know as the September Massacres The Legislative Assembly set aside the constitution of 1791, declared the king deposed, dissolved the assembly, and called for elections for a new one.
New governing body took office on September 21, 1792.
Called the National Convention
Abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic
Adult male citizens granted the right to vote; women still had no rights, despite the role they played in the revolution A radical group called the Jacobin Club was mostly involved the governmental changes in September of 1792
Some key members were Jean-Paul Marat, who edited a newspaper called "Friend of the People," and called for the death of anyone who supported the king. George Danton was a lawyer who also sided with the rights of the people.
The National Convention reduced King Louis XVI to a common citizen and prisoner. He was tried for treason, and was found guilty by a short vote. He was beheaded on January 21, 1793. He went to his death with calm dignity. Austria and Prussia continued to pound France on the war front. At the Battle of Valmy, however, the French won a stunning victory over the Prussians and Austrians. It was a short lived victory, since Great Britain, Spain, and Holland joined forces with the Prussians and Austrians. Forced to deal with so many enemies, the National Convention instituted a draft in February of 1793, of French citizens between the ages of 18 and 40. By 1794, the army grew to 800,000 and included women. The Terror and Maximilien Robespierre Foreign armies were not the only enemies of the French republic. There were thousands of enemies within France itself, including peasant's disgusted with the king's execution, and priests who would not accept government control. In comes Maximilien Robespierre.... In early 1793 Robespierre gained control, and he and his supporters set out to build a "republic of virtue" by wiping out every trace of France's past. He had the calender changed to 12 months of 30 days each, with no Sundays because they were seen as religious days, and religion was an old idea. All churches throughout France were closed. He then became leader of the Committee of Public safety. For about a year he governed France as a virtual dictator, and the period of his rule is known as the Reign of Terror. The Reign of Terror was a terrible time in France's history. Many people, including those who benefited from the Revolution and even those who led the Revolution, were executed by way of the guillotine. Estimates are that as many as 40,000 people were executed, with 85% being members of the peasants, urban poor, or middle class, all because Robespierre was crazy. Maximilien Robespierre "The first maxim of our politics out to be to lead the people by means of reason and the enemies of the people by terror. If the basis of popular government in time of revolution is both virtue, the basis of popular government in time of revolution is both virtue and terror: virtue without which terror is murderous, terror without which virtue is powerless.Terror is nothing else than swift, severe, indomitable justice; it flows, then, from virtue." How can you summarize this quotation? The End of the Terror In July of 1794, some members of the National Convention turned on Robespierre, fearing for their safety, and probably because he was nuts. He was arrested, tried, and sentenced to death. The Reign of Terror ended on July 28, 1794 when Robespierre went to the guillotine (good for him). The French public grew tired of the terror, and the rising price of bread, salt, and other necessities to live. In 1795 moderate leaders in the National Convention drafted a new government, the third since 1789. It placed power in the hands of the upper middle class and called for a two house legislature and exectuive body of five men, known as the Directory. They gave their country a period of relative order, and found a good general to command France's armies.