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Language Immersion

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Sean Diana

on 18 August 2013

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Transcript of Language Immersion

Krashen's Five Hypotheses on Language Learning
Day 1
Introduction to Historical, political and cultural Perspectives
Language Immersion
Getting to know you
*Write your English name on the name card.

*Think of a movement to describe yourself.

*If you were an animal, what would you be and why?

*What was your favorite activity as a child?

* Where are you from?

* Why did you become a teacher?

* Present !!

(You have 15-20 minutes)
Day 2
Second Language Acquistion Theories
Nativist Theory
Day 4
Objectives for the week

*You will know the historical, polictical and cultural background of langauge immersion education in the United States.

* You will understand the theories of Second language acquisition and how it applies to language immersion

*You will look at how the curriculum is developed to best support language immersion education

*You will be given methods to teach children language immersion

*You will learn how to devlop lesson plans that support language immersion education
Day 3
Curriculum that supports language immersion

Day 5
Lesson Plan
History of Language Immersion in the US

* Coral Way Elementary, an K-8 school in Dade County, Florida, is cited as the first two-way bilingual school, beginning in 1963
* The program was started by Cuban citizens who were seeking refuge in Florida from the Castro regime and believed that their children would eventually return to Cuban schools
*a French/English school in Massachusetts, was formed around the same time
In 1968, the passing of the Bilingual Education Act served to address the reality that Limited English Proficient(LEP) students were in need of proper instructional support to achieve academic gains, and in turn provided federal funding for primary language instruction in local school districts [4]. The Lau v. Nichols ruling of 1974 further affirmed a student’s right to educational opportunity via appropriate instructional services (Calderón, 2000). Schools were thus charged with the mission to implement programs suitable to the needs of their language minority students.
Two truths and a Fib

* Write two statements about yourself that are the truth, make them something that your collegues probably don't know.

* Write one statement that is not true.

(Share Out)
Each teacher reads the three sentences and the teachers discuss by table which one they think is the fib.

Sean Diana
1. I have lived in Spain, Costa Rica and the United Arab Emirates.
2. I do stained glass for a hobby.
3. I have been skydiving.

Joe Axel
1. I have been skydiving
2 I won $25,000 playing poker.
3. I have lived in Paris, France.

Stephen Krashen

House Keeping
Noam Chompsky
Behaviorist Theory
B.F. Skinner
Classical conditioning
Classical conditioning is a form of learning in which a response is elicited by a neutral stimulus which previously had been repeatedly presented in conjunction with the stimulus that originally elicited the response. Called also respondent conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning. The traditional procedure is based on the work of Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist.

Operant Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
Conditioning refers to
learning and behavior
Operant conditioning is learning in which a particular response is elicited by a stimulus because that response produces a desirable consequence (to encourage the behavior) or an undesirable consequence (to discourage the behavior).

Positive Reinforcement
- a reward is given (e.g., a cookie)
Negative Reinforcement
- something unfavorable is taken away (e.g., having to clean up)
Positive Punishment
- something unfavorable is applied (e.g., scolding or extra chores)
Negative Punishment
- something favorable is taken away (e.g., play time)

The Natural Order Hypothesis – People acquire the rules of language in a predictable order

The Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis - People develop competences in second languages by using language for real communication ... learning or knowing about language.

The Monitor Hypothesis - conscious learning is like being a monitor or an editor

The Input Hypothesis – People acquire language by understanding messages or by receiving "comprehensible input"'

The Affective Filter Hypothesis - a mental block, caused by affective variables, prevents input from reaching the language acquisition device

Total Physical Response
James Asher
Young children's experience with parents or other adults combine both verbal and physical aspects.
Young children typically spend a long time listening to language before ever attempting to speak.
Child respond physically to the speech of the parent, and the parent reinforces the child’s responses through further speech.
Total Physical Response:
Three main hypotheses
1. The brain is predisposed to learn language through listening, and learners respond with physical movement to language input.
2. Effective language learning must engage the right hemisphere of the brain (methods tapping into the artistic "side" are required).
3. Language learning should not involve any stress, as stress and negative emotions inhibit the natural language-learning process.

* Ask questions !!
* Discuss using either Mandarin or English.
* Use the bathroom if you need to.
* Think-Pair-Share

Bilingual laws
United States
*Civil Rights Act 1964
a landmark piece of civil rights legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.[2] It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (known as "public accommodations").

Curriculum Essentials
*Language is best and most efficiently learned when taught through content, (Brinton, Snow and Wesche 1989; Richard-Amato 1996;Snow adn Brinton 1997)

*Thematic instruction makes the content more comprehensible.

* Students know the topic even if they don't understand everything that is being said in their new language.

*When both language teachers organize the themes using both languages it provides students with a preview in the first language, view in the second and a review again in the first language.

*Themes are connected to the standards and student's lives.

How can you connect your teaching to your student's lives?
Teach langauge through sustained content
*Traditional language teaching focuses on the language itself.

*Teachers teach grammar and vocabulary allowing students to know something about the language but they can't use it to communicate or learn academic subjects. (content area- Social studies, science and math)

* Teaching language through thematic units is more efficient, students learn language at the same time they are learning the important academic content.

* They acquire both BICS (everyday basic communication) but also CALP (Cognitive Academic LAnguage)

* Example: Insects- Children will read books about insects, bring in insects to observe, keep journals about insects, do experiments with insects, and talk about them while learning.

Curriculum related to lesson delivery
4 essentials in creating a risk free environment (low affective filter)
* Establish a routine (number 1)
Allow children to take risks with the language that make the children feel sucessful.
Create a daily or weekly routine. Students know what to expect and make more sense of the instruction

(Think pair share)
What if a child laughs at another student about the way they speak in Mandarin?

------Activities that are essential for an effective langauges program are:
*Circle time
* Daily learning reflection
* Balanced literacy program
* Math concept development
*Centers and projects
*Print Rich environment
Circle time
*math routine (counting)
*Daily celebrations (birthdays)
*Class news
*student sharing
* write together on class chart

* Children learn the days of the week, months and numbers. Also tomorrow will be, today is, yesterday was. Past, present and future tenses.
* Do the weather too and add pictures cloudy, sunny, rainy, to each day.

Math concept development
* Connect math to the theme
* The thematic curriculum map should integrate
the Common Core Standards in math with the thematic unit.
*Students should make graphs and charts, measure and record (math and science integrated), compare and contrast, probability, parts of fractions, all related to the theme.
Daily learning reflection
* Closing, end of day reflection about what they have learned.
* Children brainstorm and teacher writes the concepts down.
*Good time for teacher to assess what has been learned

Centers and projects
* Classroom organized into centers
(Think pair share)
What are centers?
* Centers based on theme
* Centers based on content area (writing
center, library, math, computers.)
* Students go to centers in small groups
* Centers are also used in a balanced literacy
Lev Vygotsky
History of Bilingual Education in the USA
1865 - The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. - Established the constitutional basis for the educational rights of language minority students

1954 - Brown v. Board of Education - Overruled Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that permitted "separate but equal" education for African-American children.

1964 - Title VI Civil Rights Act - Prohibited discrimination in Federally funded programs. Subsequently cited in many court cases. Basically stated that a student has a right to meaningful and effective instruction

1968 + 1974 - Bilingual Education Acts - Provided supplemental funding for large numbers of children of limited English speaking ability in the United States.

History of Bilingual Education Continued
1974- Equal Educational Opportunity Act – Defined the failure of an educational agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by students

1974 - Lau vs. Nichols - Class action lawsuit brought by Chinese-speaking students in San Francisco against the school district.

1975 - Lau Remedies - HEW established some basic guidelines for schools with Limited English Proficient (LEP) students but discontinued by the Reagan Administration.

1980 - Civil Rights Language Minority Regulations - Regulations included four components: Identification, assessment, services, and exit. Bilingual instruction was to be given by qualified teachers.

Chinese language schools in the United States were established as far as 1848, to the time of the immigration of Chinese laborers.

To serve the needs of those early immigrants, classes in Cantonese were held for the residents of Chinatown in a number of large U.S. cities.

In 1905, the emperor of the Ch'ing Dynasty dispatched his Secretary of Justice to the United States to identify and assess the needs of Chinese communities. It was recommended that the Chinese government fund the establishment of Chinese language schools in Chinese communities.

Further consultation with the Chinese Consulate and leaders of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association led to the founding of several Chinese language schools in San Francisco. Others were subsequently established in New York and Chicago.

The founding of China as a republic in 1911 provided additional incentives for establishing Chinese language schools in the United States. In the 1930s, Los Angeles, San Diego, Washington, New Orleans, Minneapolis, and Oakland were among the cities with one or more schools.

Chinese-Language Education in the USA

1998 - California Proposition 227 virtually bans bilingual education except under certain special conditions and establishing a one-year "sheltered immersion" program for all LEP students.

2000 – Arizona Proposition 203 limits the types of instruction available to English Language Learner (ELL) students.

2001 - With the passage of No Child Left Behind by the U.S. Congress, the Bilingual Education Act was terminated.

English - Only Era in the USA

Balanced Literacy Program
Centers Video



Environmental Print




Using Students’ Names Promotes
Interest and Ownership!






A print-rich environment offers a wealth of opportunities for students to make use
of print and practice literacy habits and skills. While the arrangement of the
classroom is often viewed as a backdrop for teaching and learning, with careful
attention and preparation, one can create a classroom environment that
meaningfully supports an instructional program and student learning.

• Charts that support literacy.
• Functional print used for classroom communication.
• Co-created print as an instructional tool.
• Displaying student writing.
• Organizing and using word walls.

Literacy starts with a
Print Rich Environment

Students are put into Center Groups:
Independent Learners!




Notice the Rubric!



Notice that the children are often using pointers.
It helps to focus their attention onto letters, blends, words, etc.



A Good Way to Start a Print-Rich Room:



Notice Room Layouts





Learning new words and imprinting them into long-term memory is important for children to be able to read successfully. Displaying systemically organized print supports success in reading and writing. Here is an example of students using a word wall as a reference when they write. This word wall is organized by having letters of the alphabet in order in a row along the top. Under each letter is a list of frequently used words beginning with that letter. Commonly, teachers and students will create a word wall together adding new words as needed. Students are encouraged to read, copy, and use words from the word walls whenever they are writing. The word wall is a powerful tool, because it helps students write some words quickly and easily while they are composing text. In the English language, many of the words posted on the walls can serve as roots for analogies and teachers will often use the word wall to teach spelling patterns in words. For example, the word and can be changed by adding an “s” at the beginning to make a new word sand. These roots help strengthen a students ability to go from known to unknown words. Noticing features in words is an important skill that supports literacy learning. Other word walls can also be used:
to organize words that:
• Rhyme.
• Are important vocabulary for a specific content area.
• Are sight words.
• Are found in a recent story read by the whole class.

Organizing and Using Word Walls

One way to make print a part of the classroom environment is to display print created by teacher and students. An environment rich in print (co-created with students or work that serves as models) becomes meaningful to students whenthe teacher uses the print as an instructional tool. The teacher uses print within the classroom as a scaffold to extend learning experiences and engage students in the interactive process of learning to read and write. Using a displayed chart or co-constructed work, the teacher and students can review and revisit lessons, and charts can also be used as a reference for independent student work. Charts and text produced by the teacher and students are of high interest and engaging to students because they honor student contributions. Also, because students served as co-writers and are familiar with the work, they will be better able to read the work independently. Some examples of co-created print that can be displayed include:
• A chart used by teacher and students to record story
• Work created during an interactive writing activity.
• Students’ retelling of a story recorded by the teacher.
• Students’ written responses to teacher’s questions
about a story.
• A story created by students, but recorded by the

Co-Created Print as an Instructional Tool

Having different types of print in the classroom and using it for ongoing classroom activities will encourage students to look at print in different ways.Displayed print of different types will help students understand how print is a functional part of their everyday lives. Print-rich classrooms are filled with visually prominent “functional” print. Teachers can refer to charts like these to help students learn that words represent important concepts such as days of the week or months of the year. The picture above provides an example of charts that can are either commercially made or crafted by teachers. There is a difference between displaying charts that serve a purpose versus using them to decorate the classroom. In this instance, these charts are used as teaching tools and engage the students in “reading” and literacy learning. Other types of charts that could be displayed include:
• Days of the week.
• Months of the year.
• Colors charts: with pictures and names of different colors.
• Animal charts: with pictures of animals and their names.
• Alphabet charts.
• Number charts.

Charts That Support Literacy

Phonics- letter sounds/diagraphs/blends
High Frequency words
Guided Reading /Centers
Guided Writing
Sustained Silent Reading
Read Alouds
Independent Reading

Literacy Block Components

Looks like she is doing homework
with magnets!


Displaying Exemplary Student Work Promotes:
Excellence and Motivation


Word Walls. . .
We’ll See More of These Later!


Of equal importance in a print-rich environment are displays of independent student writing. Students are often motivated to write more when they see that what they wrote is valued and displayed for all to see. This photo is an informational piece of student writing that has been displayed in a classroom after an experience. It not only serves as a display, but as a reference and way to record an important experience that has taken place. Writing needs to be published and displayed, not just graded and put away. This can be done by reading student work out loud, displaying work on the walls, or compiling student work into books for the classroom library. Other types of student work that can be
displayed include:
• Stories written by students.
• Written student responses to open ended questions
about a story they have read.
• Independent student writing incorporating concepts from
other content areas (e.g., science, social studies, math).
• Worksheets that require students to include meaningful
written contributions.

Displaying Student Writing

An exciting and inviting literate classroom encourages students to take part in the
many learning experiences provided at school. The moment one steps foot inside
a classroom one can usually tell what is important to the teacher in terms of the
type of working literacy environment he or she sets up for the students. In a
classroom that encourages literacy learning, one may find examples of displayed
print on the walls, a classroom library, grouped tables and chairs to promote
classroom conversations, independent use of classroom resources on labeled
shelves, and places for students to work independently or in small and large

The question teachers need to ask themselves is, “Does my classroom
environment promote literacy learning?” While there are many ways for teachers
to think about creating literate classroom environments, this guide will focus on
print-rich environments and classroom libraries.

Does my classroom have one?

Magnetic Letter Centers


High Frequency words
Guided Reading /Centers
Guided Writing
Sustained Silent Reading
Read Alouds
Independent Reading
Writer's Workshop
Literature Circles

Literacy Block Components

Types of Immersion Programs
What is language immersion education?
Due to the historical and current misuse of the term "immersion," we offer the following clarification and definitions to clearly identify the most common types of language immersion programs:

Definition of Key Terms and Acronyms:

Minority language- A language other than the one spoken by the majority of people in a given regional or national context, for example, Spanish in the U.S., Basque in Spain, English in Japan, etc.

Majority language- The language spoken by the majority of people in a given regional or national context, for example, English in the U.S., Spanish in Spain, Japanese in Japan, etc.
L1 = First language
L2 = Second language

Core Characteristics of Immersion Education
*Additive bilingualism with sustained and enriched instruction through the minority language and the majority language is promoted
*Subject area instruction through the minority language occurs for at least 50% of the school day during the elementary school years
*Teachers are fully proficient in the language(s) they use for instruction
*Support for the majority language is strong and present in the community at large
Clear and sustained separation of languages during instructional time
*Clear and sustained separation of languages during instructional time
There are four main types of dual language programs, which mainly differ in the population:

Developmental, or maintenance
, bilingual programs. These enroll primarily students who are native speakers of the partner language.
(bilingual) immersion programs. These enroll a balance of native English speakers and native speakers of the partner language.
Foreign language immersion, language immersion or one-way immersion
These enroll primarily native English speakers.
Heritage language programs
. These mainly enroll students who are dominant in English but whose parents, grandparents, or other ancestors spoke the partner language.
The term "dual language" is often used interchangeably with two-way immersion. Other variations on dual language include "dual language immersion," "dual immersion," and "dual enrollment". The term bilingual education has somewhat fallen out of favor among dual language practitioners, but it is still used to refer to any program that uses two languages for instruction.

Dual language programs
are different from
transitional bilingual programs
, where the aim is to transition students out of their native language and, in the United States, into English as quickly as possibly, usually in three years. This is sometimes referred to as subtractive bilingualism since the first language is typically lost as English is acquired. Dual language programs are considered to promote "additive bilingualism", meaning that students' primary language is developed and maintained as a second language is added.

Another type of program that is not considered dual language is foreign language education where students receive less than half a day studying in the partner language, and often only study language arts and literature in that language as opposed to content area subjects such as mathematics, science, and social studies.
Dual Language
Variation within Dual Language Programs
. Time Spent in Partner Language

Full immersion, or 90/10, programs teach in the partner language 90% of the time in the primary grades (usually kindergarten and first grade) and 10% in English, and gradually adjust the ratio each year until the partner language is used 50% and English is used 50% by third or fourth grade (sometimes later if the program extends through eighth grade or beyond).

Partial immersion is less than 50% and usually the target language is only taught in certain subjects such as math and science.

In regard to lesson planning, dual language teachers should focus on creating lessons that:

*Proceed from whole to part
*Are learner centered
*Have meaning and purpose for students and connection to their present lives
*Engage groups of students in social interaction
*Develop both oral and written language
*Show faith in the learner in order to expand students’ potential (Freeman & Freeman, 1994)

Other important tips for educators teaching bilingual or multilingual students include organizing content around themes, providing students with choice, starting the learning process with students’ questions, and exposing students to not only professional published books and magazines but student-authored literature (Freeman & Freeman, 1994).

Guided Reading

Artistic expression in the form of drawing, painting, weaving, pottery, crafts, puppetry, photography, computer graphics, print making, sculpture, collage, origami, calligraphy, beadwork, masks, gardening, cooking, and woodworking evokes in us strong emotional and cognitive responses.

Art allows us to create a socioculturally rich environment, stimulating linguistic, cultural, cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development.

By engaging the senses of touch, taste, smell, sight, and sound, teacher and students are pushed and pulled toward each other’s perspectives and encouraged to exchange and expand their views of the world.

Engaging the Right Hemisphere of the Brain
Social Interaction and Cognitive Development

Vygotsky’s theory advocated learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning. The teacher collaborates with his or her students in order to help facilitate the construction of meaning in students.

The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently.

Alphabet- Line up alphabet order of first -last -middle name
Sentence building line up- use index cards and have students line up to build sentences
Math- have students line up to make correct equations
Birthdays- have students line up by month -day of their birthday
Think of other ways to use line up.


Students sit in groups
Each student is given a number
Teacher asks a question and gives a time limit
Students put their heads together at their table and share the answer
Teacher calls on a number to designate which student shares with the rest of the class


-Students make two circles and face each other, teacher asks a question and the students discuss the answer with the student in front of them.
-Then the inner circle moves one person to the right and the process starts over again.

Inside-Outside Circle

Students sit in groups
Each student is given a number
Teacher asks a question and gives a time limit
Students put their heads together at their table and share the answer
Teacher calls on a number to designate which student shares with the rest of the class


Constructivist theories of learning propose that students should discover information for themselves,
developing and questioning knowledge as necessary.

Social learning theorists suggest that learning is heavily influenced by interaction with, and input from other individuals. A highly effective teaching strategy known as cooperative learning fuses these two perspectives of learning, taking a group discovery approach to learning in a broad spectrum of subject matters. This approach to classroom learning, when used appropriately, has enormous positive effects on academic achievement, as well as social development and relationships.


Teacher asks a question with many possible answers.
Students have a pencil and paper in their group
They pass the paper and pencil around writing possible answers to the questions.
Teams share out


Students sit in groups
Students are given information about a topic
Students ask a question, “I want to know what, who, when, where , why.....
Then they share out their questions with the entire class.


3-2-1 is an exit slip strategy that provides a quick “dipstick” of students’ learning. Students are instructed to use a piece of paper or index card to record the following:
Three things that are clearer to them regarding the day’s topic or concept; two connections they are making to the new concept and their prior knowledge or experience; and one question/piece that needs further clarification. The teacher collects the slips as students leave the room and uses the information to inform the next day’s lesson and/or to differentiate instruction for students.

Carousel Feedback (communication skills, information sharing)
Teams rotate from project to project to give feedback to other teams.
1. Teams stand in front of their own projects.
2. Teams rotate clockwise to the next project.
3. For a specified time, teams discuss their reactions to the other team’s
project – no writing at this time.
4. Person #1 records feedback on feedback form.
5. Teacher calls time.
6. Teams rotate, observe, discuss, and give feedback on next project. A
new recorder is selected each round.
7. Teams continue until each team rotates back to its own project or until the
teacher calls time.
8. Teams review the feedback they received from the other teams
Students move to different corners of the room, depending on their point of view.
This activity may help them see that not everyone shares the same point of view,
and it may stretch their own way of thinking.
1. The teacher announces “corners.” Then she announces the choices for
each corner of the room. “If you were to be a doctor, which specific
profession would you choose: cardiologist, psychiatrist, dermatologist, or
2. Students are then given a small amount of silent think time to make a
choice. They will write the name of their corner on a piece of paper but
should not discuss it with anyone else.
3. Teacher tells students to go to their chosen corners. Once they are in
their corner, they must find a partner to talk with – someone not on their
regular team.
4. Pairs will then discuss the reason(s) for their choice. Teacher will then
select a few students from each corner to share what his or her partner
Fan-N-Pick (teambuilding, mastery, thinking, communication)
Students play a card game to respond to questions.
1. Student 1 holds question cards in a fan and says, “Pick a card, any card!”
2. Student 2 picks a card, reads the question out loud and allows five
seconds of think time.
3. Student 3 answers the question.
4. Student 4 restates the answer.
a. For right or wrong answers, Student 4 checks and then either
praises or coaches.
b. For higher-level thinking questions which have no right or wrong
answer, Student 4 does not check for correctness, but praises and
paraphrases the thinking that went into the answer.
5. Students rotate roles one clockwise for each new round.
Jigsaw (interdependence, status, equalization)
This is a great way for students to feel like experts and share information about
what they know!
1. Each student on the team becomes an “expert” on one topic by
working and sharing with members from other teams assigned
the corresponding expert topic.
2. Upon returning to their teams, each one in turn teaches the
group about his/her expert topic. Works well for acquisition and
presentation of new material and review.
Structured Instruction Observation Protocol
* Lesson Preparation
* Building Background
* Comprehensible Input
* Strategies
* Interaction
* Practice/Application
* Lesson Delivery
* Review and Assessment
Lesson Preparation Features

1. Content objectives clearly defined, displayed and reviewed with students
2. Language objectives clearly defined, displayed and reviewed with students

Working With American Students
Discuss in Small Groups:
1. How would you characterize American students?
2. How are American students different than Chinese students?
3. How would you characterize parental involvemement in China?
American Students Across the Spectrum

Socioeconomically – Some wealthy and some poor
Educational Equity – High / Low IQ –
Some are independent / some dependent learners
High / Low EQ – Some students are emotionally charged, some are apathetic
Extraverted / Introverted - Asperger’s / Autistic
Medical Issues: Ask the school and / or parents about medical issues e.g., hyper/hypoglycemic, allergies, etc.
Short-attention spans (due to modern-day technology e.g., video games, TV, etc.)

Suggestions for Working with
American Students

Learn their names and call them by their names.
They are individuals. Recognize that.
Develop an Individual Education Plan (i.e., an IEP) for each student. If and when parents inquire, you will be prepared with data.
Get inside of the children’s world. Know their likes, dislikes, what they do outside of school, etc.
Parental Involvement

Can be really involved or absent from their child’s education
Some parents respect the role of the teacher
Some parents may tell you how to teach
Involve parents – communicate with all them
Laud their child
Encourage parents to inquire about learning content and day’s activities with their children
Small Group Discussion
Discuss with your group one of your favorite teachers. The teacher could have been when you were young or in college. You could discuss two teachers if you would like.
- Describe why the teacher is memorable.
- What are three or more distinct characteristics of the teacher that made her or him a good and/or a memorable teacher.
- Have your group create a list of those characteristics.
Despite culture, ethnicity, or geography, human beings learn a universal grammar i.e., they are all composed of nouns, verbs, etc.

The development of language involves a function or functions in the brain which allow language to occur and external data (information from the world which helps build language).
Answers to Yesterday's Questions
Strategies for warm ups:
1. Do something physically active e.g., have them mimic or copy you as you touch different parts of your own body while saying that body part in Mandarin and have them repeat the word.

2. SIng a song to them and eventually teach them to sing with you. Act out the song physically.

3. Identify the day (e.g., Thursday the 25) to reinforce the names of days and numbers.

4. Identify the weather outside.

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