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Unit 4A: Legislative Branch

Chapter 6
by

Deborah Dunsmore

on 6 March 2015

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Transcript of Unit 4A: Legislative Branch

Unit 4A Vocabulary
Unit 4A:
Legislative Branch

Warm Up, Part I
1. Describe federalism. Why did the founding fathers set up a government that had different levels with power?

2. Define legislation. What are some examples of legislation that we've talked about?

3. If you could create a piece of legislation, what type of bill would you advocate for?
Article ____ of the Constitution sets up the Legislative Branch. Montesquieu’s idea of _________________________ was used because our Founding Fathers were afraid that one group or person would have too much power, like Great Britain had when we were their colonies. Our legislative branch is responsible for ______________ laws. It is ______________, meaning it is composed of two houses. The larger house has _____ members and is called ________________________________. The smaller house is called ________________ and has _____ members -- ___ per state.
Powers of the national government, called ______________ powers are mostly carried out in the legislative branch. Some examples include: _____________________________________________. These powers are written in the Constitution. Other powers come from the _______________________ ___________, which says Congress can do anything necessary in order to carry out its laws.
Warm Up - yes, you must write out the paragraph
US Congress
NC General Assembly
Cumberland County Board of Commissioners
Fayetteville City Council
Cumberland County School Board
Bicameral Legislatures vs. Unicameral Legislatures
(two house)
(one house)
US Congress has a Senate & a House of Representatives

NC General Assembly has a NC Senate & a NC House of Representatives
Cumberland Co. Bd. of Commissioners
Fayetteville City Council
Cumberland Co. School Board
What compromise set up our Congress?
Is bicameral or unicameral better? Why?
Thom Tillis is from Huntersville

Richard Burr is from Winston Salem
http://www.senate.gov
http://www.house.gov
Warm Up
There are A LOT of districts to remember...
District for US House of Representatives, NC House, NC Senate, Cumberland Board of Commissioners, Fayetteville City Council... not to mention Precincts, School districts, etc.
How do you know what district you're in?
1- Apportionment: creating districts based on population
2 - Census: counts population every 10 years
3 - Redistricting: adjust size of district if needed based on census
4 - Annex: add nearby area to district
i.e. Gates Four added to City of Fayetteville
5 - Local governments approved by state (must submit charter)
District Process
Should Fayetteville annex Gates Four? Why?

How would economic reasons (in)validate such a decision?
Politics of Re-Districting
GERRYMANDERING:
creating a district to favor one political party over another; incumbent advantage
Speaking of politics...
What do you think the message of the cartoonist is about Congress?
In Congress, there is a majority & minority party. This varies from election to election.
Majority Party
political party where MORE than half of the members of that house belong to.

*The Speaker of the House and the Pres. Pro Tempore come from this party.
Which party has the majority in the House? Senate?
Speaker of the House

John Boehner (R-OH)
Orrin Hatch (R-UT)
President Pro Tempore

Minority Party
political party where LESS than half of the members of that party belong to that party.
What challenges would a President from a Minority Party face while dealing with a Congress of the different Majority Party?
Floor Leaders
The REAL wheelers and dealers of the SENATE.
Very influential
Act as a rep for their political party
Let's draw out a chain of command for both the House & Senate.
http://www.c-span.org/Live-Video/C-SPAN/
1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act:
All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, and privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin.

1. What did this legislation ban?

2. How did it help people?
Warm Up, Part I
In 1965, Congress passed the Voting Rights Act. It prevented states from discriminating against people while voting.

****************IMPACT*******************
These 2 pieces of Civil Rights legislation impacted American citizens by ending de jure segregation, but de facto segregation continued.

What is an example of de facto segregation?
Warm Up Review, Part II
1. What is the role of a legislature?
2. What is the legislature for the following levels of government: National? State? County? City?
3. Who is the leader of the US House of Representatives?
4. Who is the leader of the US Senate?
5. What happens when a President from the minority party has to face the majority party in Congress?
Powers written in the Constitution
Unwritten powers, granted by Elastic Clause
Air Force (Militia)
HWYs (Interstate trade)
Drinking Age (Welfare)
National bank (Taxes)
Powers that do not relate to lawmaking
Propose Amendments
Count Electoral Votes
Impeachment
Begins impeachment
Breaks tie for electoral college for President
Introduce appropriation bills*
Impeachment trial
Breaks ties in the electoral college for Vice President
Approves appointments made by President
Approves treaties made by President
Called "Reserved powers"
Public schools
Holding elections
State taxes
Marriage rules
Pass ordinances
City/county taxes
City curfews
Zoning - Different parts in an area can have different purposes.
(Residential, Commercial, Agriculture, Industrial)

Why would you not want to live in some of those zones? Why would you not want your business in other zones?
Franking Privilege
Salary
Office space
Immunity
Gov’t projects or grants that primarily benefit a home district or state, not all of America.
http://www.areddy.net/mscott/pork.html
What is the cartoonist implying about the job Congress does?
Expulsion: expelled by a 2/3 vote of Congress
Censure: slap on the wrist, warned about actions
Can't pass ex post facto laws
Can't pass bills of attainder
Can't suspend writ of habeas corpus
Laws can be declared unconstitutional by courts
Powers that Congress can not do
- bills that spend $
- bills that give permission to spend $
Warm Up
Leg. Branch
Exec. Branch
Jud. Branch
Describe checks & balances as it relates to the Legislative Branch.
Introduce Bill

by putting it into the
hopper and naming it
(example: HR 501)

by having the sponsor
report on it and name it
(example: S 220

Debates and votes
according to
Rules Committee's terms

1. Constituents
2. Interest Groups
3. Representatives
4. President
Introduce Bill
A Bill is Born
House Committee
Senate Committee
House Floor
Senate Floor

Debates and votes;
also can filibuster
(can end with
2/3 cloture vote)
Conference Committee
Final Approval
President's Decision

Members of House and Senate meet to make compromise

Both House and Senate must approve exact
same bill

1. Sign
2. Pocket veto
3. Veto **

Congress can override President's veto
by 2/3 vote in each house
** If this happens...

1. Hold hearing
2. Keep it
3. Change it
4. Kill it
5. Pigeonhole it

1. Hold hearing
2. Keep it
3. Change it
4. Kill it
5. Pigeonhole it
How a Bill
Becomes a Law
House of Representatives
Senate
Types of Committees
Select
Standing
Joint
Conference
http://www.whereabill.org/#109_h810
Committee assignments are based on SENIORITY (who's been in Congress the longest, not how old you are)
Warm Up
Which legislature (US, NC, or local) would handle the following legislation?
1. An increase in sales tax for the county
2. Reinstating the draft
3. Raising the drinking age
4. A curfew for teenagers
5. Changes to naturalization/immigration laws
6. Commercial/residential zoning
7. Allocating funds for highway construction
*What is the difference between law, statute, and ordinance?
Warm Up/Review
1. What is federalism? Give examples of how we see it in the legislative branch.
2. Differentiate between the qualifications for NC General Assembly and US Congress.
3. What is the difference between implied & expressed powers? Give examples.
4. What is the difference between special powers for the US HoR and US Senate?
5. Where do most bills change in the process of how a bill becomes a law?
6. What can happen if a Congressman does something wrong?
7. What is a filibuster and how does it end?
8. What is zoning and which level of gov't has the power to do it?
9. What is the difference between recall, referendum, and initiative?
Public Hearings
http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18563_162-57571712/father-of-slain-sandy-hook-child-pleads-for-gun-control/
How Could Gerrymandering Be Positive?
Lets see how you do!
Bicameral
Census
Constituent
Gerrymander
Majority Party
Minority Party
Standing Committee
Seniority
Expressed Powers
Implied Powers
Elastic Clause
Impeach
Writ of Habeas Corpus
Bill of Attainder
Ex Post Facto Laws
Franking Privilege
Lobbyist
Pork-Barrel Project
Joint Resolution
Special-Interest Group
Filibuster
Cloture
Pocket Veto
Renee Ellmers
District 2
Qualifications:
Must be 25 years old
Must be a citizen of the US for at least 7 years
Must live in district AND state you represent
# of People:
435 - based on population
(NC has 13)
Term:
2 years - no limit to number of terms
Important People:
Leader: Speaker of the House
Member of the majority party
Most powerful person in HoR
3rd in line for President
Party Whips:
People who tally votes & share info
Other Info:
Debate time is set by Rules Committee (Usually 30 minutes per speaker)
Qualifications:
Must be 30 years old
Must be a citizen of the US for at least 9 years
Must live in the state you represent
# of People:
100 - 2 per state
Term:
Serve 6 year terms,
(To keep Senate from having entirely new ppl. every election, 1/3 of all Senators are up for election every 2 years)
Important People:
Official Leader - Vice President
Votes only if there's a tie
Day-to-Day-Leader - President Pro-Temp
4th in line for President
Other Info:
Debate time is unlimited.
Strom Thurmond: longest filibuster EVER
Qualifications:
Must be at least 21 years old
Must be a qualified voter
Must be a district resident for at least 1 year
# of People:
Qualifications:
# of People:
Term:
Term:
120
2 years, but no term limit
Must be at least 21 years old
Must be a qualified voter
Must be a district resident for at least 1 year
50
2 years, but no term limit
http://www.ncga.state.nc.us/
Cumberland County Board of Commissioners
# of people:
7 Commissioners who hire a county manager
Term:
4 year term
http://www.co.cumberland.nc.us/commissioners.aspx#1
What kind of jobs do these representatives have?
Why do you think they have jobs?
# of People:
Term:
9 council members and a mayor
4 year term
http://www.cityoffayetteville.org/city_council/default.aspx?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1
1. How do you think political parties affect Congress?

2. How does our bicameral legislature relate to republicanism?
Warm Up
Warm Up
What is the cartoonist implying?
Venn Diagram Review
Speaker
VEEP
Floor Leader
Majority
Floor Leader
Minority
Pro Tempore
Party Whip
Minority
Party Whip
Majority
Floor Leader
Majority
Floor Leader
Minority
Party Whip
Minority
Party Whip
Majority
Committee Chairs
Committee Chairs
Page 204 #1-14
1. D
2. D
3. D
4 A
5. D
6. A
7. B
8. B
9. B
10. D
11. D
12. C
13. B
14. B
Page 381 #4
Responsibilities
1. Writing NC laws
2. Organizing public schools
3. Holding elections
4. State taxes
5. Checks and balances
Try to do these without looking up the answers first.
Unit 4B Vocabulary

Elector
Executive Order
Pardon
Reprieve
Amnesty
Foreign Policy
Treaty
Executive Agreement
Ambassador
Trade Sanction
Embargo
Bureaucracy
Independent Agency
Spoils System
Civil Service
Full transcript