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Figueroa's Framework - Institutional Level
Transcript of Figueroa's Framework - Institutional Level
According to Amezdroz et.al., politics is the processes and procedures of making decisions that affect people, from small groups in societies and even multiple societies that are unified for certain purposes. (Eg Who are allied in free trade, or warfare.)
We can consider this when looking around the Gold Coast as the decisions made local government, or in Queensland at the major stadiums invested in by the state government, or at the funding decisions for major sporting codes made at federal level.
Politics can also be applied within sporting clubs, as anyone who makes decisions about the distribution of resources such as funding or facilities has to apply politics. On a larger scale, when governments are allocating funding they have to consider what even qualifies as a sport, where the sport would be played, who organises and controls the sport, how rewards are distributed etc.
Figueroa's Framework - Institutional Level
The Impact & Role of Family
Participation in organised sport often involves a large commitment from the families of those involved. Commitment may include money, time, or organisational skills. For younger people, this means parents are involved. This can either be a good thing, or a bad thing! Families can be brought together, or problems can occur. In addition to this, hegemonic masculinity can be seen within the roles that parents play in their children's sport. Fathers tend to be 'hands on' whilst mothers tend to be 'emotional support.' Another impact that family can have at the institutional level is the parenting style. This an include 'permissive' parents being more likely to have children involved in sport and parents who exercise regularly themselves are more likely to have active daughters. Another note on daughters is that parents often take a more serious
interest in the sporting endeavors and results of sons. Obviously this can be discouraging!
The Impact of Schools
How much of an impact do you think schools have on individuals and their involvement in exercise, sport and physical activity?
The Impact of
One of the more recent approaches by Australian sporting clubs is to market themselves as 'juniors' clubs, where participation is valued, and development is a goal. Prior to this, many sporting clubs tended to be focused on high performance only. We still see a worldwide trend of a drop-off in adolescent participation rates (
Why do you think this happens?
) but on the whole, the majority of clubs employ a pyramid model.
One of the features of many sporting clubs is the voluntary nature of organisers. Despite this, fees can often be high, or there may be additional fees to participate in specific programs. When governments are forced to tighten spending, often social services like sport funding are cut first. Often organised sport can be too expensive for low-income families.
Please make sure you read about Jay Coakley's research in the textbook as there are 5 significant issues he discusses.
How sporting clubs choose to address these 5 issues really impacts upon the access and equality of opportunity in exercise,sport and physical activity for young (and old!) Australians.
The Impact of Religions
Many of the rituals associated with the Olympic games have their origins in religion, such as athelete's oaths, opening and closing ceremonies, along with the first games being centred on the temple of Zeus in Olympia.
Today exercise, sport and physical activity have complex links to religion, race and ethnicity. Some of these factors will be repeated at the cultural stage of FF. We can argue that factors of sport echo or mimic religion, such as the 'worship' of athletes (or Gods!), the rituals of attending or viewing a game, the idolisation of former champions, the devout fans and the collections of symbols of faith such as jerseys, flags and trophies.
Despite these fun parallels, religions can also cause barriers to equity and access. In Muslim and Hindu communities, there is often a noticeable lack of female participants. This may be for several reasons, such as dress or modesty codes, requirements of women and men to be separated, and issues associated with fasting and Ramandan, along with sacred days, times or places being barriers to participation.
Social structures in society include your family, local clubs, schools, and the various levels of government to name just a few. Sociologists like to use the term
to describe how these social structures interact and form the cement of social life. We have previously talked about social norms (not picking your nose etc) and social institutions tend to repeat or reinforce social norms.
We know that sporting clubs can draw communities together, and that often schools are community hubs and meeting places. The
of FF examines the laws, patterns or rules within different agencies and organisations. (And of course, how these laws, patterns or rules impact access and equity to exercise, sport and physical activity.)
How might a sporting club or organisation disadvantage people's access to sport?
Some clubs or schools might disadvantage people whose needs are different from the majority of society. This could happen through discriminatory rules or regulations, such as dress codes, membership rights, or even allocation of facility use. Think about the priority given to futsal and Senior PE classes here at school... who does this disadvantage?
In primary schools participation is encouraged through the curriculum, whereas in secondary schools students tend to have already had socialisation experiences through sport or exercise outside of school. (This means they have already decided on the value of sport.) In some schools, sport is a highly valued part of the school's culture. This can be seen through investment in facilities, pages or photos in school year books, special awards, different shirts or bags, honour pockets on blazers, and the display of trophies.
Research suggests that by playing in a school sporting team, students are able to align themselves with the school's values, change how people perceive them, become a part of different social groups, and be rewarded or recognised for non-academic skill or effort. Research also indicates that sport at school allows students to meet mentors and advocates, and that sport should be taken as seriously as academic learning pursuits.
Do you support this view? Why?
High Performance and
The pyramid model of sport participation
According to you..
What qualifies as exercise, sport or physical activity?
Who should be in charge of exercise, sport and physical activity?
How should funding be allocated to Australian sports?
Chapter 20 Questions.
2: Explain how family and school experiences might impact on your own participation in exercise,
sport and physical activity.
4: Recommend positive changes that could be made to further promote access and equity within
the institution of which you are a member - or someone in your family is a member.
Begin your reference list in Harvard Style! Include the textbook, and any other reading you have completed.