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Cocaine

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Jessica Skender

on 21 April 2010

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Transcript of Cocaine

History of Cocaine It was believed that cocaine would not cause
dependence however, that has been proven false Cocaine has been a used stimulant for thousands of
years and has been classified into three eras The First Era Harmonious use of this stimulant by South American
Indians because they believed the stimulant properties
would provide them with energy and motivation for their
achievements Erythroxylon coca shrub was held in religious reverence Three possible explanations were given for the lack
of social problems with cocaine The Second Era Pharmacology and dangerous effects were determined Cocaine-laced wine became widely endorsed throughout
the civilized world. One of these was a nonalcoholic
beverage named Coca-Cola 1914, The Harrison Act misleadingly classified cocaine
and coca as narcotic substances and outlawed their
uncontrolled use Cocaine continued to be used for local anesthetic, was
available in the "black market" and was used recreationally
by musicians, entertainers, and the wealthy The Third Era In the 1980's the public was misinformed about cocaine Initially the high cost of the drug limited its use but with
the increased demand and supply, the prices decreased and
the epidemic of cocaine began Types of Cocaine Hydrochloride Salt Powdered form that you see in movies as "lines" snorted
from a mirror Made by using acid to neutralize it to form a salt
substance. Dissolves in water and is either snorted
through the nose or injected in the veins Takes longer to have an effect When sold on the streets, it is often diluted so dealers
can make more money per ounce sold Does not have the acid for neutralization Smokable which makes the "high" felt within 10 seconds
of inhaling. This effect makes this type of cocaine
more attractive to regular users Famous form is known as Crack Processed from the powdered cocaine into a freebase form.
The name comes from the noise the crack makes when smoked In order to remove the hydrochloride salt, crack is
processed over heat using baking soda, water, and ammonia Very inexpensive to make and to buy, explaining its
popularity Ways of Administering Cocaine Orally Produces least potent effect Involves prolonged chewing of coca leaf Not common in United States South American Indians take cocaine orally to increase their
strength and relief from fatigue Snorting Effects occur more rapidly and do not last long Involves inhaling cocaine hydrochloride powder into the
nostrils Concentrations of cocaine are higher in the body Intravenous Allows large amounts of cocaine to be introduced
very rapidly into body Causes severe side effects The "high" is intense but short-lived Slang Terms for Cocaine "C," Blow, Coke, Crack, Devil's Dandruff, Freebase,
Readyrock, Rock, Snow, Nose candy, Roxanne Positive Effects Perceived By User Excitement Makes partying better Gives feelings of being high and relaxed Gives self confidence More creative and concentrated on tasks Possible to go on drinking longer Improves quality of love making Lessens shyness More energetic and eases communication/relations Disadvantages of Cocaine Perceived By User Expensive Bad for health Creates physical dependence Takes time to recuperate Insomnia Unpleasant/criminal environment Egocentric What Cocaine Does To Your Body Stimulates to central nervous system Causes the heart to beat more rapidly Blood vessels constrict Demand for a greater supply of blood Significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular incidents Stroke Reduces appetite More alert Effects of High Doses Delusional Paranoid Suffer acute toxic psychosis Blood pressure increases Strokes or heart attacks Sometimes can become fatal Depression can set in as the drug's effects wears off Freebase Cocaine Treatment for Cocaine Addiction Treatment process addresses all aspects of cocaine addiction, focusing
specifically on the mental, emotional and physical components. In order to begin the cocaine treatment process, the user must rid the body
of all toxins and chemicals produced by the drug. The first step is called medical detox which takes place in a controlled environment
that us closely supervised by medical professionals. This process is uncomfortable
because the body is still craving more drugs. Beginning with this step has been proven
the most effective in the long run. It is essential to address the user's physical being and give the person tools
to repair the damage that has been done by the cocaine. After the physical aspect of the treatment has been addressed, the emotional and mental
issues becomes the next priorities. One-on-one counseling allows the addict to straighten out mental damage that
has been done by cocaine use and helps the addict remember some of the more
painful and degrading periods of their use. Group counseling is also used for the addicts to share their experiences with
each other and also confrom each other on issues or problems within the
treatment community. Family counseling should also be available and this type of counseling helps
to mend the ties broken by the destructive nature of cocaine addiction. Through these counseling experiences, the addict begins to gain control of his/her
thought process and slowly the obsession to use cocaine or return to old ways of life
will dissipate. Ideally, cocaine treatment should focus mainly on helping the addict change thought patterns
that have led to drug abuse and addictive behaviors in the past. Currently, there are no medications available to treat cocaine addiction. Because of mood
changes that are experienced during the early stages of cocaine abstinence, antidepressant drugs
have been shown to be of some benefit. Contingenct management uses a voucher-based system to give positive rewards for staying in treatment
and remaining cocaine free. Based on drug-free urine tests, the patient earns points which then can be
exchanged for items that encourage health living such as joining a gym, or going to a movie and dinner. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a short-term approach to help cocaine addicted individuals become abstinent
from cocaine. The underlying assumption is that learning processes play an important role in the development
and continuation of cocaine abuse. Helps patients recognize, avoid, and cope in situations where they are
most likely to use the drug. Therapeutic communities or residential programs with planned lengths of stay, usually 6 to 12 months, offer
another alternative to those in need of treatment for cocaine addiciton. Focus on the resocialization
of the individual to society and can include on-site vocational rehabilitation and other supportive services.
Typically used to treat patients with more severe problems such as co-occuring mental health problems and
criminal involvement. Ways People Are Influenced To Do Cocaine 10% of publicly-funded drug abuse center admissions in 2006 were for crack cocaine. Approximately 33.7 million Americans ages 12 and older had tried cocaine at least once in their lifetimes. 1 out 4 Americans between the age of 26 and 34 have used cocaine in thier lifetime. Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug (following
marijuana) in the U.S. More than 34 million Americans (14.7%) age 12 or older have used cocaine at least once in their lifetime. Over 15,000 deaths annually associated with stimulants in the U.S. In 1988, about 300,000 infants were born addicted to cocaine. During 2004, cocaine was primary drug involved in Federal drug arrests. There were 12,166 Federal drug arrests for cocaine in 2004. Smoked out of a glass water pipe and high may last 3-5 minutes Trends Of Cocaine Inhaling Smoked by inhaling the vapor by heating the solid cocaine Mostly smoked out of a glass water pipe but sometimes even aluminum pop can Effect is achieved almost immediately after smoking High is intense and doesn't last long, usually 5-15 minutes Cocaine JEOPARDY!!
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