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Transcript of The Brain
The Frontal lobe controls functions related to reasoning, planning, parts of speech, voluntary movement, emotions, memory and problem solving.
The functions of the parietal lobe include cognition, information processing, pain and touch sensation, spatial orientation, speech, and visual perception.
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The temporal lobes play an important role in organizing sensory input, auditory perception, language and speech production. In addition it is involved the formation and association processes of memory and emotional responses.
The occipital lobe's primary functions
are visual perception and color recognition.
Target Areas of The Brain
Primary Auditory Cortex
Primary Visual cortex
The somatosensory cortex is located in the parietal lobe and receives and interprets the majority of input from the sense of touch. It helps to sense temperature, pressure, and physical touch.
The primary auditory cortex is located in the temporal lobe and is made of the Brodmann areas 41 and 42. It's primary function as the name implies is to process sound. It processes pitch, volume, and the location of sound.
The Visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe and is responsible for taking in visual input from the retina and organizing it.
Broca's area is located in the frontal lobe and is primarily responsible for speech production, facial neuron control, and language processing.
Wernicke's area is located in the temporal lobe and is responsible for language comprehension, semantic processing, language recognition, and language interpretation.
Functions of the Hypothalamus include regulating the body to maintain homeostasis, motor function control, food and water intake regulation, and sleep-wake cycle regulation.
Functions of the amygdala include arousal, fear responses, emotional responses, hormonal secretions, and memory.
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The thalamus controls motor control, some sensory signals, and controls the sleep and awake states.
The hippocampus is responsible for the consolidation of new memories, emotional responses, navigation, and spatial orientation.
Sexual Glands (Ovaries and Testes
The pituitary gland is involved with growth hormone production, endocrine function regulation, and the storage of hormones.
The thyroid regulates the body's metabolism.
The adrenal glands are mainly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress.
The sexual glands produce hormones that stimulate various functions during particular times of humans life cycles. They also are involved in processes in the immune system.
Parts of The Brain
The cerebellum controls fine movement coordination, balance and equilibrium, and muscle tone.
The medulla controls autonomic functions, relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord, and coordinates body movements.
Pons connects the cerebral cortex and medulla. It is a communication center between the two hemispheres of the brain and relays sensory information between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum. It also deals with arousal, controlling autonomic functions, and sleep.
The recticular formation deals with arousal, attention, cardiac reflexes, and motor functions. It also relays nerve signals to the cerebral cortex and deals with sleep.
The corpus callosum deals with communication between brain hemispheres, eye movement, maintaining the balance of arousal and attention, tactile localization.
Studying The Brain
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
An MRI is a test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to create photos of organs and structures inside the body.
fMRI stand for Functional magnetic resonance imaging, and it's a technique used to measure brain activity by detecting the changes in blood oxygenation and flows that occur in response to brain activity. fMRI's can produce maps that show which parts of the brain are involved with certain mental processes.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET
A PET scan uses radiation, or nuclear medicine imaging, to produce 3D, colorful images of the functional processes within the human body.
The Brain Hemispheres
Additional functions include...
Additional functions include...
The Nervous System
The glial cells surround and support neurons, provide insulation, and detain electrical interference.
The neuron is designed to obtain (short end) and send electrical impulses (long end).
The Cell Body
The cell body is the largest part of the neuron and contains the neuron's nucleus. The cell body produces proteins needed for the construction of other parts of the neuron.
Dendrites usually carry signals toward the cell body. Dendrites are usually more numerous, shorter and more branched than axons. They have many synapses in order to receive signal messages from nearby neurons.
The axon usually carries signals away from the cell body. They are long nerve processes that may branch out to convey signals to various areas. Some axons are wrapped in an insulating coat of glial cells. Axons end at junctions known as synapses.
The myelin sheath is composed of fat-containing cells that insulate the axon from electrical activity. This insulation increases the rate of the transmission of signals. A gap exists between each myelin sheath cell along the axon.
Axon Ending/End Bulb
The end bulbs are the small knobs at the end of an axon. They release chemicals called neurotransmitters.
A synapse is a small gap at the end of a neuron that allows information to pass from one neuron to the next.
Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous contains the nerves that lie outside of the central nervous system. Its primary role is to connect the central nervous system to the organs, limbs and skin.
Central Nervous System
The central nervous system is made of the brain and spinal cord. It receives sensory information from the nervous system and controls the body's responses.
Afferent neurons, sometimes called sensory neurons are specialized neurons located in the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and skin. These neurons are sensitive to light, sound, taste, smell, or other stimuli. They send messages about the environment to the central nervous system
Efferent neurons, sometimes called motor neurons, carry messages away from the central nervous system, the brain and the spinal cord, to the muscles and glands. They enable body movement by relaying messages from the brain and the spinal cord to the peripheral nervous system.
Afferent Vs. Efferent
Sympathetic Nervous System
The sympathetic nervous system controls the body’s response to emergencies. When this system is activated, a number of things begin to occur. For example, your heart and breathing rates increase, digestion slows or stops, the pupils dilate and you begin to sweat. This system enacts what is known as the fight-or-flight response. This system prepares your body to either fight the danger or flee from it.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The parasympathetic nervous system works to counter the sympathetic system. After a crisis or danger has passed, this system helps to calm the body. Heart and breathing rates slow, digestion resumes, pupils contract and sweating ceases.
GABA or gamma-aminobutyric acid is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and it contributes to motor control, vision, and many other cortical functions. It also regulates anxiety.
Acetycholine is a very widely distributed excitatory neurotransmitter. It triggers muscle contraction and stimulates the excretion of certain hormones. In the central nervous system, it is involved primarily in wakefulness, attentiveness, anger, aggression, sexuality, and thirst.
Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is important for attentiveness, emotions, sleeping, dreaming, and learning.
Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone essential to metabolism. It regulates attention, mental focus, arousal, and cognition. It also inhibits insulin excretion and raises the amounts of fatty acids in the blood.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved with controlling movement and posture. It also regulates mood and plays a large role in positive reinforcement and dependency.
Serotonin is involved with regulating body temperature, sleep, mood, appetite, and pain.
Noradrenaline is basically the same thing as norepinephrine. It deals with adrenalin and acts on the parts of the brain involved with responsiveness and fear.
Cortisol is excreted by the adrenal glands and is involved in metabolic processes, regulation of blood pressure, insulin release, immune functions and inflammatory response.
Oxytocin is involved in processes that prepare a female’s body for childbirth. It specifically helps stimulate and facilitates the bond between a mother and a newborn infant. It is also thought to play a role in sexual arousal in both sexes. In addition the hormone is credited with increasing trust, generosity, and cooperation.
The main function of testosterone is to offer support for a healthy sex drive. This is a hormone found primarily in males but is also present in females. This hormone is responsible for production of sperm, growth of facial hair and the development of a deeper voice tone in men. Normally the production of testosterone starts out in smaller quantities, increasing as age does until around 40.
Estrogen is responsible for development of the female body. It helps decelerate height increase in females during puberty, and accelerates metabolic processes. In addition it stimulates growth of the inner lining of the uterus during the menstrual cycle.