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Concept Map - AP Biology

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Jeffrey Green

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Concept Map - AP Biology

Concept Map for AP Biology You can thank Jeffrey Green II for this. Big Idea 3: Living Systems Store, Retrieve, Transmit and Respond to Information Essential to Life Processes. 3.A. Heritable information provides for continuity of life.
3.B. Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.
3.C. The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.
3.D. Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals.
3.E. Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems. Big Idea 1: The Process of Evolution Drives the Diversity and Unity of Life. 1.A. Changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.
1.B. Organisms are linked by the lines of descent from common ancestry.
1.C. Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.
1.D. The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes. Big Idea 4: Biological Systems Interact, and These Systems and Their Interactions Possess Complex Properties. 4.A. Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.
4.B. Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.
4.C. Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment. Big Idea 2: Biological Systems Utilize Free Energy and Molecular Building Blocks to Grow, to Reproduce and to maintain dynamic Homeostasis. 2.A. Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.
2.B. Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments.
2.C. Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
2.D. Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system's environment.
2.E. Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination. 1.B. Organisms are linked by the lines of descent from common ancestry. 1.B.1 Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today.
1.B.2. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested. 1.C. Life continues to evolve within a changing environment. 1.C.1. Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth's history.
1.C.2. Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated from each other.
1.C.3. Populations of organisms continue to evolve. 1.A. Changes in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution. 1.A.1. Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution.
1.A.2. Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations.
1.A.3. Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes.
1.A.4. Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics. 1.D. The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes. 1.D.1. There are several hypotheses about the natural origins of life on Earth, each with supporting scientific evidence.
1.D.2. Scientific evidence from many different disciplines supports models of the origins of life. 2.B. Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments. 2.B.1. Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.
2.B.2. Growth and dynamic homeostasis are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across the membrane.
2.B.3. Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions. 2.A. Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter. 2.A.1. All living systems require constant input of free energy.
2.A.2. Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.
2.A.3. Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization. 2.D. Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system's environment. 2.D.1. All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy.
2.D.2. Homeostatic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaption in different environments.
2.D.3. Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.
2.D.4. Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis. 2.E. Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination. 2.E.1. Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organisms, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms.
2.E.2. Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.
2.E.3. Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection. 2.C. Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis. 2.C.1. Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes.
2.C.2. Organisms respond to changes in their external environments. 3.B. Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms. 3.B.1. Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.
3.B.2. A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression. 3.A. Heritable information provides for continuity of life. 3.A.1. DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information.
3.A.2. In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle mitosis or meiosis plus fertilization.
3.A.3. The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.
3.A.4. The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics. 3.C. The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation. 3.C.1. Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.
3.C.2. Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.
3.C.3. Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts. 3.D. Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals. 3.D.1. Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a evolutionary history.
3.D.2. Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling.
3.D.3. Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.
3.D.4. Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response. 3.E. Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems. 3.E.1. Individuals can act on information and communicate it to others.
3.E.2. Animals have nervous systems that detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses. 4.A. Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties. 4.A.1. The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.
4.A.2. The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.
4.A.3. Interactions between external stimuli and regulated gene expression result in specialization of cells, tissues and organs.
4.A.4. Organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts.
4.A.5. Communities are composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways.
4.A.6. Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy. 4.B. Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems. 4.B.1. Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.
4.B.2. Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter.
4.B.3. Interactions between and within populations influence patterns of species distribution and abundance.
4.B.4. Distribution of local and global ecosystems changes over time. 4.C. Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment. 4.C.1. Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.
4.C.2. Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.
4.C.3. The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics.
4.C.4. The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem. 1.A.1. Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution. 1.A.2. Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations. Key Points a.) Struggle for limited resources leads to individuals with more favorable phenotypes to surviving and producing offspring, thus passing on subsequent traits.
b.) Evolutionary fitness is measured by reproductive success.
c.) Gene variation and mutation lead to a diverse gene pool which aid the survival of a species in a changing environment.
d.) Different gene variations can be selected in different generations influenced by the stability of an environment affecting the rate and direction of evolution.
e.) Adaptions are genetic variations that is favored and manifested into a trait, to give a particular organism an advantage in a certain environment.
f.) Chance and random events can influence the evolutionary process, especially for small populations.
g.) Conditions for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are seldom met. Including large population size, migration, no net mutations, random mating and absence of selection.
h.) Mathematical approaches are used to calculate changes in allele frequency providing evidence for the occurrence of evolution in a population. Key Points
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