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Chemistry - Unit 5

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Mark Holcomb

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Chemistry - Unit 5

Chemical Reactions
Synthesis
Decomposition
Single Replacement
Double Replacement
Combustion
Reactants
Products
Chemical Reaction or Change – process in which one or more substances are converted into one or more new substances.
Law of Conservation of Matter
– Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical process.
So...the number of atoms you start with (
reactants
) will be the same number of atoms you end up with (
products
)...the only difference is the way in which they are all bonded together (rearranged).
Unit 5
Reactant -
starting substance; on the left side of the reaction
Product –

substance that is produced; on the right side of the reaction
The arrow means "yields"
CH + O
4 2
CO + H O
2 2
CO + H O
2 2
C H O + O
6 12 6 2
CH
4
O
2
H O
2
CO
2
In a chemical reaction the reactant's
bonds break
and the atoms are rearranged to form the products.
Chemical reactions may occur
spontaneously
which means without adding energy or
non-spontaneously
which means you must add energy for the reaction to occur.

Break-up occurs with no effort.
Break-up needs some help.
Bonds break
Bonds formed
Word Equation – a chemical equation using words (not formulas)‏
Formula Equation – a chemical reaction using formulas (not names)
Convert the below word equation to a formula equation:

Ex.
Calcium

reacts
with
oxygen
to
produce

calcium oxide
Example:
WORD EQN:
Silver nitrate

reacts
with
copper
to
form

copper (II) nitrate
and

silver

FORMULA EQN:

Example:
WORD EQN:
hydrogen perioxide
(H O ) will
decompose
into
water
and
oxygen

FORMULA EQN:

2 2
Law of Conservation of Matter
– Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical process.

So...
the number of atoms you start with (reactants)
will be the
same number of atoms you end up with (products)
...the only difference is the way in which they are all bonded together.

Balancing Equations
When balancing a chemical reaction you may add
coefficients
in front of the compounds to balance the reaction,
but you may NOT change the subscripts
.
Changing the subscripts changes the compound.
Subscripts are determined by the valence electrons (charges for ionic or sharing for covalent)‏

Coefficients – whole numbers placed in front of a formula to indicate how many units of that formula there are.

A + B AB
AB A + B
A + B
C
A
C
+ B
AB
+

CD
A
D

+

C
B
2
KI
+
Pb(NO )
2
K
NO
+
Pb
I
3 2

3
2
Physical State of Reactants and Products:
Sometimes the physical state of reactants and products are indicated as follows:
(s) solid
(l) liquid
(g) gas
(aq) aqueous (means dissolved in water)‏
Example:

2
KI
+
Pb(NO )
2
K
NO
+
Pb
I
3 2

3
2
(aq) (aq) (aq) (s)
(Fuel)
+
O
CO + H O
2
2 2
Prediction: Synthesis
(you will only be responsible for ionic synthesis)‏
Ex 1: Na + Cl

Ex 2: Ca + O

Ex 3: Fe + O
2
2
2
+3
Prediction: Decomposition
(you will only be responsible for elemental decomposition)
Ex 1: LiF

Ex 2: BeO

Ex 3: Cu O
2
3
Don't forget
diatomic molecules!!!
Prediction: Single Replacement
(you will only be responsible for metal replacement)‏
Use the
activity series
to decide whether or not the single replacement reaction will occur or not.
Metals will only replace metals
below
them on the activity series.
Ex 1: Li + AuO

Ex 2: Pt + K O

Ex 3: F + KBr
2
2
+3
A double replacement reaction occurs between
TWO IONIC
compounds that are
DISSOLVED
in
WATER
...aka
IONIC SOLUTIONS
.
Remember that
IONIC
compounds break into
IONS
when dissolved in water.
Double replacement reactions are sometimes called
PRECIPITATION
reactions because a
PRECIPITATE
is formed.
A double replacement reaction occurs
ONLY IF
one of the products is
INSOLUBLE
.
The
INSOLUBLE
product is the
PRECIPITATE
because it
FALLS
out of solution and makes the solution
CLOUDY
and will eventually
SETTLE
on the bottom.
Use the
SOLUBILITY RULES
to determine whether or not the ionic products are
SOLUBLE
or
INSOLUBLE
.

Prediction: Double Replacement
Prediction: Double Replacement
Use the
solubility rules
to determine whether or not the ionic products are soluble or insoluble.
Ex 1: CaCl + Ag SO

Ex 2: LiOH + Mg(NO )

Ex 3: NaOH + CaCl
3 2
2 2 4
2
Driving Forces
Double Replacement Reactions have certain “driving forces”
Will only happen if one of the products:
doesn’t dissolve in water and forms a solid (a “
precipitate
”), or
is a gas that
bubbles out
, or
is a covalent compound (usually
water
).

Example: NaHCO + 2HCl 2NaCl + CO + H O
3 2 2
(s) (aq) (aq) (g) (l)
Prediction: Combustion
(you will only be responsible for complete combustion)‏
Ex 1: CH + O

Ex 2: C H + O

Ex 3: C H + O
4 2
3 10 2
10 22 2
+3
How to recognize a reaction:
Look at the reactants:
E + E = Synthesis
C = Decomposition
E + C = Single replacement
C + C = Double replacement
Fuel + O = Combustion
2
Use Activity Series Chart
Use Solubilty Chart
Any hydrocarbon
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