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Native Americans of Texas
Transcript of Native Americans of Texas
The Kiowa people were nomadic hunters and gatherers who did never stayed in one place long. They were part of what we call "Plains Indians because they live in parts of the Great Plains of the present day U.S. Their primary source of food was the American bison, thus making the nomadic because the bison (buffalo) herds would roam the plains.
The Kiowa were fierce warriors who were well known among the other Plains Indian tribes for their long distance raids and constant fighting with enemy in territory near and far. Before the introduction of the horse, they would hunt by getting as close as possible but with the addition of the horse, they became well known for their horse riding and hunting skills.
The Comanche people are also Plains Indians because they are nomadic and hunt primarily for the buffalo. They are warrior type natives who were a well known horse culture. At their height, they would often kidnap enemies and sell their captives to the Spanish and Mexicans settlers.
The Comanche were feared warriors who would often hunt at night during the full moon because they could see to ride horseback at night. They became well known horse and cattle thieves.
Mescalero Apaches are generally located in the southern Texas Panhandle and parts of New Mexico. They are basically a nomadic mountainous tribe who would be known to also occupy the nearby plains to hunt buffalo. They would often raid other tribes. Later that raided Spanish, Mexican, and then American settlers.
Mescalero Apaches are mountainous nomadic Indians who lived in the southern panhandle of Texas who are often found grazing the ranges of their area hunting for buffalo. They are also good on the horse like most plains tribes. The Mescaleros were fierce fighters who often raided other tribes, Spanish, Mexicans, and then Texas Settlers
Lipan Apaches are generally regarded as one of the very first Native American tribes to encounter the "white man." They controlled much of the territory near San Antonio. They are well known for their many attacks and raids on Texas settlers, but at other times they were allies with those same settlers. The Lipans were also part of the Plains Culture and hunted for buffalo. Their living environment was much like the other nomadic plains tribes, living in teepees as a means to quickly relocate.
The Caddo lived in a highly sophisticated environment. They were not generally known as a nomadic type of people. They were skilled hunters and fisherman. The Caddo were generally located in Southeastern Texas, Southern Oklahoma, Northern Louisiana, and southern parts of Arkansas. Women were played more of a predominant role in their culture. The Caddo tribe falls in to the category of "Southeaster Indians" because they are loosely located in the southeastern section of the United States (think of the SEC Conference.)
The Cherokee tribe is well known for their mass exodus (forced removal march) from the Georgia territory of the U.S. to the western areas of the United States called the Trail of Tears. The Cherokee were considered at a point in time as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes" because they often assimilated (blended) into American society quite well. They were one of the first tribes to become American citizens. The Cherokee were considered Southeastern Indians because of their predominant location in the Southeastern United States until forced removal. Cherokee often harvested smaller fruits and vegetables and gathered local nuts and berries. They also often used dogs as pack animals and didn't wear feather headresses like the Sioux Indian.
The Cherokee Indian are well known for their role in the Indian Removal Act or the Trail of Tears. They are considered Southeastern Indians because of their original location in the Southeastern U.S. of Georgia and North Carolina. They are highly organized and assimilated well into American culture through their hair, appearance, and clothing. They were known for harvesting fruits and vegetables and gathering nuts and berries. The Cherokee used pack dogs until horses were introduced into North America by the Europeans. They did not wear long feathery headdresses like other tribes.
The Coahuiltecans were a group of tribes that were found in South Texas. They spoke diverse dilects and languages. One of the most important staples for the native peoples fo the region was the nopal, or prickly pear cactus.
The Jumano Indians lived in the Southwest and South Plains. The Jumanoes were buffalo hunters and traders. They played an active role as the middlemen between the Spanish colonies and various Indian Tribes. The Jumano Indians were from farming villages where they grew corn, squashes, beans and other produce. They also traded other goods such as textiles, turquoise, shells and salts.
They lived in beautiful painted adobe homes.
The Atakapans are native to the Southeastern Woodlands. They ate shellfish and fish. The women gathered bird eggs, the American lotus for it roots and fruits as well as other wild plants. The men made tools for hunting and fishing such as bow and arrows and spears. They dugout canoes to navigate the bayous and shore line.
The Tonkawas were a nomadic buffalo people roaming from somewhere around Hillsboro to San Antonio. They ate mainly small game, fish and shellfish. Their culture was similar to many Plains Indian tribes.
They traded deerskin and buffalo robes to the Spanish to obtain firearms.
They elected a chief to lead them. The male and female Tonkawans tattoed and painted their bodies for religious purposes.
The Tiguas are the only Puebloan tribe still in Texas. They lived in Western Texas close to modern day El Paso.
Their houses were not Pueblo style construction but a stype called jackal. Jackal houses were mad eof sticks stuck in the ground and covered with mud.
The Tiguas respected their ancestor's religious beliefs by performing many old ceremonies, dances and songs.
The Karankawa Indians lived along the coast of Texas. They were known to capture enemy warriors and eat them to gain magic powers of the dead warriors or leaders.
Their houses were small huts made of long sapling tree trunks or limbs bent over and tied together. They used dugout canoes to to fish and move across the bay. Their favorite weapon was the long bow. Which were usually very tall much like the men who are said to have been over 6 feet tall.
They made and used simple pottery. They did not use many decorations on their pottery.
Make sure to take good notes and answer the questions at the end of the presentation.
1. In which area did the Comanches live?
A Central Plains
B Mountain and Basin Region
C East Texas
D Great Plains
2 What similarities do the Kiowa and the Apache share?
A They were nomads who depended on the buffalo for survival.
B They built domeshaped grass huts.
C They lived near the Gulf Coast and ate primarily fish and berries.
D They built permanent homes and farmed.
3 In which region did the Jumanos live?
A Great Plains
B Gulf Coastal Plain
C Mountain and Basin Region
D Central Plains
4 Which of the following is TRUE of all American Indian groups in early Texas?
A They almost destroyed their environment by using it up and moving on.
B They adapted to and used their environment to meet their needs.
C They ignored their environment, creating ways of meeting their needs without natural resources.
D They used up one natural resource, then learned to use another to meet their needs.
5 While the Caddo lived in_______Texas, they were still located in the_________, where fishing was a major way of life.
F West.....Coastal Plain
G West.....Great Plains
H East.....Coastal Plain
J South.....Great Plains
6 How were the Coahuiltecan similar to the Karankawa?
F They were primarily buffalo hunters.
G They were mound builders.
H They were mainly farmers who traded with other tribes.
J They were nomads along the Gulf Coast.
7 In what region did the Kiowas line in.
A Mountain and Basin
B Great Plains
C Coastal Plains
D North Central Plains
History is divided into eras so it is easier to identify cause and effect of the great events/people in history
7.1A: Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain why historians divide the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People
Take out a piece of paper and answer the following questions. Write out the 3 key words from each question and then the answer. You may go back and look at your notes.