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The Civil Rights Movement

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Alex Young

on 30 April 2015

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Transcript of The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement
Brown v. Board of Education
Emmett Till Murder
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Little Rock
Freedom Rides
March on Washington
Birmingham Protests
MLK's Nobel
Peace Prize
of JFK
The Civil Rights Act
Bloody Sunday
Assassination of Malcom X
Voting Rights Act
Supreme Court Appointment
Assassination of MLK
August 28th, 1963
200,000 Americans marched on Washington, D.C. for jobs and freedom
Culminated by Dr.King's "I have A Dream" speech, a call for racial justice and equality
Chaired by A. Philip Randolph and organized by Bayard Rustin
Followed by years of disillusion and racial strife.
Represented hope and progress
September 4, 1957
Central High School in Little Rock High school
President Eisenhower chooses the “Little Rock Nine” - 9 black high school students (5 girls, 4 boys) - to begin integration of schools
Gov. Faubus of Arkansas says no September 3 and employs National Guard to prevent African American students from entering
Team of NAACP lawyers wins federal district court injunction to prevent the governor from blocking the students’ entry
With the help of police escorts, the students successfully enter the school through a side entrance on 23 September 1957
Eisenhower reluctantly ordered troops from the Army’s 101st Airborne Division to protect the students, who were shielded by federal troops and the Arkansas
National Guard for the remainder of the school year
At the end of the school year, Ernest Green became the first African
American to graduate from Central High School
Before schools opened in the fall of 1958, Faubus closed all four of
Little Rock’s public high schools rather than proceed with
desegregation, but his efforts were short lived. In December
1959, the Supreme Court ruled that the school board
must reopen the schools and resume the
process of desegregating the
city’s schools.
SCLC in a massive direct action campaign to attack the city’s segregation system by putting pressure on Birmingham’s merchants during the Easter season

Scheduled to begin in early March 1963, but was postponed until 2 April when the relatively moderate Albert Boutwell defeated Birmingham’s segregationist commissioner of public safety,Eugene ‘‘Bull’’ Connor, in a run-off mayoral election.

Launched with a series of mass meetings, direct actions, lunch counter sit-ins, marches on City Hall, and a boycott of downtown merchants. King spoke to black citizens about the philosophy of nonviolence and its methods, and extended appeals for volunteers at the end of the mass meetings

On April 10 the city government obtained a state circuit court injunction against the protests. After heavy debate, campaign leaders decided to disobey the court order.

On Good Friday, April 12, King was arrested in Birmingham after violating the anti-protest injunction and was kept in solitary confinement.
-letters from birmingham jail

Father sued board of education for traveling distance to take his 7 year old daughter, Linda Brown, to an all black school rather the any of the white schools surrounding their neighbor.

-Supreme Court rules that school segregation is unconstitutional, overruling the Plessy vs. Ferguson ideal of “separate but equal”.

-Resistance to the Brown ruling included KKK (now at it’s strongest), and the Southern Manifesto- a 100/102 vote involving 11 Senate and 77 House of Representatives member to protest Brown vs. Board of Education.

-Attorney - Thurgood Marshall, member of NAACP who later becomes the first African American to be a member of the Supreme Court.

* Court Case took place in Topeka, Kansas where southern racism had an overwhelming presence.

November 22, 1963 Dallas, Texas
Crowds of excited people lined the streets and waved to the Kennedys. The car turned off Main Street at Dealey Plaza around 12:30 p.m. As it was passing the Texas School Book Depository, gunfire suddenly reverberated in the plaza.
Bullets struck the president's neck and head and he slumped over toward Mrs. Kennedy. The governor was also hit in the chest.
The president's body was brought to Love Field and placed on Air Force One. Before the plane took off, a grim-faced Lyndon B. Johnson stood in the tight, crowded compartment and took the oath of office
Lee Harvey Oswald
L.B.J and Warren Administration
Left "what if" questions about the Cold War
Elizabeth Eckford being harassed while entering Central High School
The "Little Rock Nine" entering Central High School on September 23, 1957
The bill passed the House of Representatives in mid-February 1964, but became mired in the Senate due to a filibuster by southern senators that lasted 75 days.
When the bill finally passed the Senate, King hailed it as one that would ‘‘bring practical relief to the Negro in the South, and will give the Negro in the North a psychological boost that he sorely needs’’
On July 2, 1964, Johnson signed the new Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law with King and other civil rights leaders present.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to address race and sex discrimination in employment and a Community Relations Service to help local communities solve racial disputes; authorized federal intervention to ensure the desegregation of schools, parks, swimming pools, and other public facilities; and restricted the use of literacy tests as a requirement for voter registration.
In 1964, MLK was awarded the prize for his dynamic leadership of the Civil Rights movement and steadfast commitment to achieving racial justice through nonviolent action.
Accepted on December 10, 1964 in Oslo, Norway on behalf of the Civil Rights Movement
At the age of thirty-five, King became the the youngest man, and only the second African American, to receive the prestigious award.
March from Selma to Montgomery Ala.
March 7th, 1965
State troopers and a sheriff’s posse in Selma, Ala., attacked 525 civil rights demonstrators taking part in the march
Organized to promote black voter registration and to protest the killing of a young black man, Jimmie Lee Jackson, by a state trooper during a Feb. 18 voter registration march in a nearby city.
Edmund Pettus Bridge
Covered in newspapers across the country and broadcast on national news, outraging many Americans
They reached Montgomery that Thursday, marching to the state capitol with 25,000 people. The leaders unsuccessfully attempted to present a petition to Gov. George Wallace and Dr. King delivered a speech before the capitol steps.
On March 15, eight days after watching the violence, President Lyndon B. Johnson presented a bill to Congress that would become the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
February 21st, 1965
Malcolm X advocated self-defense and the liberation of African Americans “by any means necessary.”
In the early 1960s, he began to develop a more outspoken philosophy than that of Elijah Muhammad, whom he felt did not sufficiently support the civil rights movement.
Malcolm formally left the organization and made a Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, where he was profoundly affected by the lack of racial discord among orthodox Muslims.
Returned to America as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz and in June 1964 founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity, which advocated black identity and held that racism, not the white race, was the greatest foe of the African American.
On February 21, 1965, one week after his home was firebombed, Malcolm X was shot to death by Nation of Islam members while speaking at a rally of his organization in New York City.
The Voting Rights Act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on August 6, 1965
Overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment
Passed in the U.S. Senate by a 77-19 vote on May 26, 1965.
U.S. House of Representatives passed the bill by a vote of 333-85 on July 9
Banned the use of literacy tests, provided for federal oversight of voter registration in areas where less than 50 percent of the nonwhite population had not registered to vote
Authorized the U.S. attorney general to investigate the use of poll taxes in state and local elections
Movements of Other Minorities
Creation of SCLC
(Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
Lead by Martin Luther King, Jr.
The project involved bringing black and white ministers together to fight for civil rights
King used a method of
nonviolent resistance
in his protesting
A goal of redeeming ‘‘the soul
of America’’
The organization drew on
the power and
independence of black
churches to support its
Formed in January 1957
Civil Rights Act of 1957
- After Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat, blacks boycott the Montgomery, Alabama public bus systems for 1 year.
- Rosa Parks - 43 years old, secretary of the Montgomery division of the NAACP.
- Impact - Blacks made up approximately 75% of the bus riders on Montgomery with 40,000 African Americans.
- "Rolling Churches" - church sponsored station wagons would go around the city and take individuals to work. Other methods included bikes, walking, and car pooling.
The first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction
The new act established the Civil Rights Section of the Justice Department and empowered federal prosecutors to obtain court injunctions against interference with the right to vote
Also established a federal Civil
Rights Commission with authority
to investigate discriminatory
conditions and recommend
corrective measures
The final act was weakened by
Congress due to lack of support
among the Democrats
September 9, 1957: Eisenhower prepares
to sign the first Civil Rights Act
January 20th: President Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated to his second term.
January 23rd: Ku Klux Klan members force truck driver Willie Edwards to jump off a bridge into the Alabama River; he drowns as a result.
November 16th: President
Eisenhower has a stroke; he survives.
American Culture in 1958
- 14 year old African American boy from Chicago visiting relatives in Mississippi.
- After being dared to speak to a white lady by his cousin, Emmett Till said "bye lady" to a white women in a local store. Soon after his body was found at the Tallahatchie River unrecognizable and a court case was soon in order between Till's mother and the husband of the white women, Roy Bryant.
April 1st– Unemployment in Detroit reaches 20%, marking the height of the Recession of 1958 in the United States.
August 23rd- President Eisenhower signs the Federal Aviation Act, transferring all authority over aviation in the USA to the newly created Federal Aviation Agency (FAA, later renamed Federal Aviation Administration).
December 31 – Tallies reveal that, for the first time, the total number of passengers carried by air this year exceeds the total carried by sea in transatlantic service.
Supreme Court Case: Cooper v. Aaron
On September 12, the Court decides
unanimously, overturning a district court decision allowing the Little Rock school board to postpone desegregation until 1960 because of the threat of continued violence. In an opinion signed by all nine justices, Supreme Court Justice Warren writes that governors and state legislators are bound by the Constitution to uphold Supreme Court decisions.
- After winning the court case and being protected by the double jeopardy laws, Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam admitted to killing Emmit Till and explained how the kidnapped, brutally beat, and shot Till in the head to
magazine for 4,000 dollars.
Integration at Last
- June 5, 1956 the Montgomery federal court ruled that racial segregation on public buses was against the 14th amendment.
- Integration was meet with rebellious acts from the KKK including bombings and sniper attacks into buses where the legs of a pregnant blacks women were shattered.
- King arises as prominent black civil rights leader as head of the MIA.
Martin Luther
1-28 year old preacher 5- Ordained Minister
2-Graduate for Moorehead College 6-Remarkable Speaker
3-Wife - Coratta Scott 7- Raised in middle class family
4-Son of Baptist Minister 8- Received doctorate from Boston University

1958 model Beech 18
- University of Alabama excepts first African American student, Autherine Lucy.
- Governor Frank Clement orders National Guard to restore order in Clinton, Tennessee where white mobs are protesting high school integration.

Mack Charles Parker, an African-American man accused of raping a white woman, is taken from jail in Poplarville, Mississippi, and lynched by a mob on April 25.
John Howard Griffin, a white writer, undergoes medical treatments in order to darken his skin. He publishes the first accounts of his experiences "passing" as a Negro in
, later collecting them in his best-selling book
Black Like Me
"The Hate That Hate Produced," a television documentary on the Nation of Islam, airs July 13 and brings Malcolm X to wider public attention.
Latest technologies of 1959
TV special introducing Malcolm X
John Howard Griffin's
famous and controversial book
Four students from NC A&T sit in at Woolworth's lunch counter
MLK joined sit in at a white restaurant in ATL
King along with 51 other arrested for trespassing
Student Non-Violence Coordinating Committee
Boynton vs Virginia
Declare the segregation on vehicles traveling between states unlawful
Election of 1960
Kennedy vs Nixon
: "New Frontier" federal funding for education, elderly medical care, economic aid
: "New Federalism" direct money and power away from government
Non-enforced desegregation laws of the interstate were challenged
Attacked in Montgomery, Alabama
Albany Movement
Civil rights movement in Albany, GA
King joins them for 9 months
Georgia Tech University admission of 2 African-American students
University of Mississippi
Supreme court ruling admission of James Meredith at Ole Miss
State troopers prevent him from entering campus
Kennedy sends US marshals
King leaves Albany
Failure for change
Success in Birmingham

James Meredith begins one-man "walk against fear" through Mississippi on June 5 and is wounded in an ambush on June 6. Civil rights icons Martin Luther King, Jr., Floyd McKissick, and Stokely Carmichael agree on June 7 to lead march along Meredith's intended route. Carmichael gives speech calling for "black power" at rally in Greenwood on June 16. "Meredith March" ends with rally in Jackson on June 26.
SCLC and Chicago civil rights groups begin campaign against housing discrimination in Chicago with mass rally on July 10. SCLC begins series of marches through white neighborhoods on July 30 that are often met with violence from mobs; during march on August 5 King is struck in the head by a rock.
Black Panther Party is founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California, on October 15.
Stokely Carmichael
The Culture of Civil Rights
Executive Order 11063

Prohibition of racial discrimination in federal funded developments
American Indian Movement
President Lyndon Johnson appoints U.S. Court of Appeals Judge Thurgood Marshall to fill the seat of retiring Supreme Court Associate Justice Tom C. Clark.
Senate confirmed Marshall’s nomination by a vote of 69 to 11
Great-grandson of slaves
NAACP’s chief counsel from 1938 to 1961, he argued 32 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, successfully challenging racial segregation, most notably in public education. He won 29 of these cases, including a groundbreaking victory in 1954’s Brown v. Board of Education
1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the U.S. Court of Appeals
June 1967, President Johnson nominated him to the Supreme Court, and in late August he was confirmed.
Defended affirmative action and women’s right to abortion.
He retired in 1991, and two years later passed away.
On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated at a Memphis hotel. James Earl Ray, white man who resented the increasing black influence in society. King's murder set off a new round of riots across the country, while both blacks and whites mourned the tragic death of a charismatic leader.
Much speculation of the FBI in the assassination of King
Shock and distress over the news of King’s death sparked rioting in more than 100 cities around the country, including burning and looting.
L.B.J urged congress to speedily pass the civil rights legislation then entering the House of Representatives for debate, calling it a fitting legacy to King and his life’s work. On April 11, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, also known as the Fair Housing Act.
Ray apprehended at London’s Heathrow Airport on June 8th.
On March 10, 1969, Ray pleaded guilty to King’s murder and was sentenced to 99 years in prison. No testimony was heard in his trial.
Asian-American Civil Rights Movement

Immigration Act of 1965
- Styles: Rock & Roll, Jazz/Blues, beginning of Motown
- Spirituals, Freedom songs -
"We Shall Overcome", "This Little Light of Mine"
Pass Time
Jackie Robinson - WWII veteran, 28 years old, UCLA graduate
Sports letterman in: track, football, & and basketball
- Owner of Brooklyn Dodgers, Branch Rikie,decided to integrate
Major League Baseball.
- Rookie Season - 1947 Jackie joins Dodgers, voted Rookie
of the year by "white folks", won world series and 6/10 nationals,
hall of fame, 1949 MVP
50's: 60's:
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