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CGHS Biology Semester in Review

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Sean Holder

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of CGHS Biology Semester in Review

Semester in Review
Fall 2013
Living things are made of cells.
Living things obtain and use energy.
Living things grow and develop.
Living things reproduce.
Living things respond to their environment.
Living things adapt to their environment.
Living things maintain homeostasis
Characteristics of Living Things
Levels of Organization
Remember these?
- all of the livable areas on Earth
- regional areas of similar characteristics
- abiotic and biotic things interacting
- lots of populations
- many individuals of the same species
- a single organism
Population Dynamics
What type of growth?
What conditions are needed?
What type of growth?
What do we call this?
Populations will be distributed based on resources, competition and available habitat.
Symbiotic Relationships
Mutualism = +/+; both organisms are benefited
Commensalism = 0/+; one organism benefits and the other is not helped nor harmed
Parasitism = -/+; one organism benefits while the other is harmed
Density Dependent
Density Independent
Depends on the size of the

Ex. Competition and disease
Does not depend on population size.

Ex. Floods, natural disasters, human
Intraspecific (same species)
Interspecific (different species)
Immigration - coming
an area

Emigration -
an area
What happens as prey items increase?
Succession - Change of a community over time
Starting from scratch (bare soil)

Rocks --> Lichens/Mosses --> grasses -->
shrubs --> pine trees --> oak trees
Starting with soil
Soils --> grasses --> shrubs -->
pine trees -->oak trees
Ecology continued
Human Impact
Nutrient Cycles
Habitat and Niche
Interaction of the living and non-living
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
Energy Flow - Chains or Webs
Only 10% of all energy is passed to the next level

90% is lost to heat or energy needs of the animal

Energy enters the ecosystem through photosynthesis
Habitat - where and organism lives
Niche - an organism's role in an ecosystem
Competition Exclusion Principle

Organisms who use the same resources will compete with each other and cannot live together forever
Niches reduce competition and promote organisms to specialize in how they get food or where they live.
area of similar characteristics
Tundra - permafrost
Desert - no rainfail
Deciduous Forest - 4 seasons, trees lose leaves
Savanna/Grasslands - grasses
Boreal/Coniferous Forest - evergreen trees
Tropical Rain Forest - high biodiversity, lots of rain

Energy flows - nutrients cycle
Increased Carbon dioxide means more of the green house effect
Introduced or non-native

No natural predators
means these organisms
can out compete the
native organisms
Deforestation...need I say more?
Bio magnification
Concentration of pollutants
increases as you move up
the food chains
Cells I
Cell Reproduction
Cell Energy
Nature of Science
Carbohydrates - quick energy usage

Monomer = monosaccharide
Lipids - long term energy and insulation

Monomers - fatty acids and glycerol
From plants
From animals

Proteins - Structure and repair

Monomer - Amino Acids
Enzymes = lower activation energy
Loses water to attach to substrates

Dehydration Synthesis
Uses water to combine substrates

Nucleic Acids
Genetic Information
Organelle and Name the Function
Light Reaction = photolysis
Calvin Cycle/Carbon Fixation
Carbon dioxide is fixed to other
carbon chains to make glucose
Photosynthesis and Respiration
Cell Respiration
Glycolysis =2 ATP;
Citric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP; mitochondria
Electron Transport Chain = 32 ATP;
Food Webs = more complex and multiple pathways
Food Chains = 1 pathway and simple interactions
Sponge Bob notices that his pal Gary is suffering from slimotosis, which occurs when the shell
develops a nasty slime and gives off a horrible odor. His friend Patrick tells him that rubbing seaweed
on the shell is the perfect cure, while Sandy says that drinking Dr. Kelp will be a better cure. Sponge
Bob decides to test this cure by rubbing Gary with seaweed for 1 week and having him drink Dr. Kelp.
After a week of treatment, the slime is gone and Gary’s shell smells better.

What was the initial observation?

What is the independent variable?

What is the dependent variable?

What should Sponge Bob’s conclusion be?
a theory that explains scientific observations; "scientific theories must be falsifiable"
Theories can change with new information
Full transcript