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The French Revolution and Napoleon

About the French Revolution and the Rise and Fall of Napoleon.

Connor Lewis

on 6 January 2011

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Transcript of The French Revolution and Napoleon

The French Revolution and Napoleon Section 1: On the Eve of Revolution Overview: Social unrest, economic troubles, and the desire for political reforms led to the French Revolution. The French were still going on an old social class system that had 3 groups: First, Second, and Third Estate.
a. Third were lowest and made up 98% of the population
b. Second were distinguished soldiers
c. First were Church officials and other nobles
i. Didn't pay taxes which got the Third Estate mad
d. First also got more privileges which sparked conflict France France was also having economic problems which increased unrest even more! a. King Louis XIV left France deeply in debt b. The goverment had to borrow alot of money
c. There were many bad harvest so food prices were sent soaring
d. The heirs to King Louis XIV were bad at reforming the economy Louis XVI c lled upon the Estates General to aid him in fixing the economy before France, in s ense, ecomes backrupt. a. Louis called for , or notebooks, for the people to write their complaints in. b. The Tennis Court Oath was taken by the Assemply when they were locked out of the r meeting hall. I n it, they declaired that they would meet wherever the king required. Tennis Court Oath Section 4: The Age of Napoleon Begins cahiers All of these events caused what is known as the Battle of the Bastille. Napoleon's Rise to Power: Main Idea 1: a. This battle started because rumors had spread that royal troops were going to ocupy the capital.
b. They charged a supposed supply fortress named Bastille and demanded weapons and gunpowder.
c. The commander told them to stop and open fired into the crowd.
i. The crowd responded by rushing into the fortress and killing the commander and his guards. This was the start of the French Revolution. Napoleon's early military success gave him a
quick rise
to power in Europe. Section 2: Creating a New France Had early success at Toulon, France and captured Italy Hid his worst losses, such as in Egypt, from his admirers in Europe Set up Consulate in 1799
Made himself Consulate for life in 1802 Napoleon titles himself Emperor of France, gaining power and popularity with almost everything he does. He has the Pope presiding over his coronation, but takes the crown and crowns himself Emperor of France Main Idea 2:
France Under Napoleon Napoleon creates new laws and reforms as Emperor of France. He strengthens central government Controls prices,encourages industry, and builds canals and roads Makes peace between France and the Catholic Church through the Concordat of 1801 Gives Church religious freedom... ...while keeping it under government control Chapter 19: By Connor Lewis and Caroline Cherry His law code is known as the Napoleonic Code Gives citizen equality under law Calls for religious toleration Reemphasizes patriarchal society Creates order and authority, lessening individual rights Main Idea 3: Building an Empire Napoleon came to conqur a huge empire, taking over almost all of Europe. Annexed (added outright) parts of the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and Germany to France Gave his family and friends positions of power France never could capture Britain, though Napoleon tried many times without success Defeated by the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar Targeted British commerce with economic warfare by closing ports to goods from Britain Britain responded with a blockade (shutting off ports to stop any movement of goods) of European ports Without Britain's trade in Europe prices rose and goods were scarce, but Britain traded with India and the Americas Section 5: The End of an Era Main Idea 1: Challenges to Napoleon's Empire Nationalism sparked many problems for Napoleon all throughout Europe. aaa People rebelled against Napoleon in Spain for replacing their king and damaging the Spanish Catholic Church Spaniards used guerrilla warfare (hit-and-run raids) to attack French supplies and troops The Spanish rebellion led the Austrians also to rebel; though their rebellion was shut down at the Battle of Wagram when they were defeated When Russia withdrew from Napoleon's Continental System, Napoleon assembled his Grand Army to invade Russia, ending only in disaster. Czar Alexander I of Russia was not pleased with the results of the Continental System and withdrew angering Napoleon The Grand Army Napoleon assembled had 400,000 men to invade Russia in 1812 The Russians retreated and burned the earth as they went so the French would have no resources for food or warmth in the winter as they followed The French retreated because of the harsh winter, and at the end of the retreat only 10,000 men had survived Main Idea 2:
Downfall of Napoleon Napoleon was forced to abdicate (step down) from power and was exiled to Elba, a Mediterranean island. Napoleon escaped back to France and regained supporters They fought in the Battle of Waterloo and were badly defeated in 1815 Napoleon was exiled again to St. Helena, a South Atlantic island and died 5 years later Main Idea 3:
The Congress of Vienna The Congress met in Vienna with several serious decisions to make. they redrew the map of Europe and put powerful countries around France to keep it in check in the future it was led by Austria, Russia, Britain with France needed to make agreements their goal was to restore stability to Europe and use legitimacy (restoring hereditary monarchies taken out of power during the Revolution and by Napoleon) with Spain, France, Portugal, and Italy Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Britain continued their alliance so they could work together and keep peace in Europe Credit for Visuals: QUIZ TIME! Question 1: Which of the 3 Estates didn't pay taxes due to special priviliges?
a. First Estate
b. Second Estate
c. Third Estate
d. I don't know... Question 2: Who were the emigres? Question 3: Maximilien Robespierre was the head of the Committee of what? (2 Words) Question 4: Which of the following is NOT a law/reform of Napoleon's mentioned in the prezi?
a. religious toleration
b. patriarchal society
c. an increase in education
d. citizen equality Question 5:
What was the goal of the Congress of Vienna? www.google.com
www.yahoo.com Overview: The National Assembly instituted political and social reforms in the moderate first stage of the revolution. The unjust regime and the ridiculous prices on food made Peasants mad enough to revolt. a. The Great Fear was started because peasants were scared of running out of food and homes, so they took their anger out on the nobles who lived lavishly. i. They set fire to the nobles' houses and sometimes even killed the nobles. ii. They would also steal their grain. b. Paris was now spread into factions, or small groups. i. The first faction was the Moderates. The Moderates looked to Marquis de Lafayette as their leader who fought along side George Washington in the American Revolution, and was head of the National Guard. ii. The second faction was the (very radical) Paris Commune, which replaced the royalist government of the city. It could mobilize entire neighborhoods for protests or even violent action. Reforms spread throughtout the social classes to try and restore order. a. The First Estate got their "special privileges" taken away. b. France declared all men to be equal and that they may run for jobs and be judged not by their social class, but by their talents. c. Thousands of women marched down the road that went from Paris to Versailles to bring their king back to Paris. Events in France stirred debate all over Europe. Emigres, or French Nobles who escaped France, fueled the fears of many Europeans with stories of the French Revolution. The Queen's brother who was king of Austria threatened to issue war on France if they continued to withold the monarchy from power. New Radicals assembled and gained Legislative power. Radicals demanded a republic and used convincing propoganda to entice people into their causes. They called war on a lot of countries such as Austria, Prussia, Britain, and other states. Section 3: Radical Days Overview: A radical phase of the Revolution led to the monarchy's downfall and a time of violence known as the Reign of Terror. Monarchy was totally abolished in France with the death of the King and Queen. a. Radicals set up the Convention in September 1792 and made Ffrance a republic. i. They also granted suffrage (the right to vote) to all males, not just land-owners. b. Louis was killed by vote for being a "traitor" to France and his wife was sentenced to death later on. The King and Queen's son died of unknown causes later on. The Convention was faced with war against 4 major countries. Netherlands, Spain, Britain, Prussia. a. The Committee of Public Safety was set up and it required all men to help in the war efforts and to protects France's republic b. This Committee was run by Robespierre who was a strong republic radical. c. The Committee was becoming paranoid of traitors to the Republic, so they started the Reign of Terror. i. The Reign of Terror was a time where the Committee tried alot of people, and the cases were often hasty and inaccurate. Many innocent people died. Women tried to gain a foothold in their rights. a. Many women fought to have equal rights like men. i. Often these women would be sent to the guillotine. The Revolution sparked some changes in everyday life. Nationalism, or a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country, spread throughout France, which would later help them in the war. b. They also built a secular, or non-religious calender. Their arts also shifted to a Roman art style. Finish.
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