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Tuesday, September 11, 2001

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Valeria P

on 9 October 2014

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Transcript of Tuesday, September 11, 2001

While America Was Sleeping
The idea for the attacks came from
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed,
who first presented it to
Osama bin Laden
in 1996. At that time, bin Laden and al-Qaeda were in a period of transition, having just relocated back to Afghanistan from Sudan. The 1998 African Embassy bombings and bin Laden's 1998 fatwā marked
a turning point
, as bin Laden became intent on attacking the United States.
Realism Theory
Four passenger airliners were hijacked
by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists so they could be flown into buildings in suicide attacks.

Two of those planes
, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City.
third plane
, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense), leading to a partial collapse in its western side.

The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was targeted at Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers.
What is Realism?
Tuesday, September 11, 2001
Vol XCIII, No. 311
What Happen on Tuesday Morning?
102 Minutes That Changed America
One of the most terrifying attacks in world history occurred on September 11, 2001. On this horrific day the events that took place changed Americas view on international relations and national security.

In the morning on September 11, 2001, 19 terrorists from “Al-Qaeda” hijacked four airliners and planned suicide attacks against four targets in the United States.

Those targets were The World Trade Center Towers, The Pentagon and The White House.
Use of State Power
New York Times
Terrorist Targets on 9/11
Valeriia Popova

Any Medina

Piero Saracco

Stefano Tozzi

Faisal Bokhari

Jonathan Montanini
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
was allegedly a member of Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization, leading al-Qaeda's propaganda operations from around 1999 until late 2001. He is alleged to have confessed under torture by United States agents to a role in many of the most significant terrorist plots over the last twenty years, but the means of interrogation put his confession into question.
Osama bin Laden
was the founder of al-Qaeda, the militant organization that claimed responsibility for the September 11 attacks on the United States, along with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets.
The 9/11 attacks proved that terrorism has always been a threat.
Globalization has made it easier for this terrorist attacks to be more dangerous.
The U.S being the most affected by this acts of terror that happen on 9/11.
Using military force is probably the most effective solution for the U.S after 9/11.
Many 9/11 conspiracy theories surfaced shortly after the September 11th attacks.
Larry Silverstein was not in the Twin Towers on 9/11
Silverstein's insurance "scam"
Bomb-sniffing dogs were removed from the building
The towers fell in their own footprint; if they collapsed from metal fatigue they should have been all over the place
The Empire State Building was hit by an airplane and survived; why not the WTC?
There is no conclusive video evidence that any aircraft hit the Pentagon
The damage at the Pentagon is not large enough to have been caused by a passenger jet
The biggest advantage the U.S could gain from a realist approach is the eradication or the crippling of diffusion of terrorism around the Middle East. That way removing it from the culture.

Allow for the easier spread of Democracy around the region.

U.S would establish a de facto proxy state that could help it oversee the region.
The U.S would be isolated in the international system.
It might create Alliances between the U.S antagonistic states.
It might create new terrorist groups in other regions target the U.S
Preferred course of action would be to establish permanent military bases.
An alternative suggested policy could be giving the Afghan government and ultimatum to eradicate terrorism, if not met U.S would target Afghan government.
Another alternative would be to use U.S intelligence planned attacks towards terrorism.
Suggested Policy
Language Game
Main Actors
View of Human Nature
What is Power?
View of the International System
View of the State
View of Change
Main Goal
National Interest
International Structure
Elements of National Power
Making Foreign Policy

How the State Exercises Power?
View of Intergovernmental Organizations
View of Non-Governmental Organizations
View of International Law
View of International Economy
Domesic & International Society

What is important for Realism?
Theoretical Application
Advantages and Limitations of the Theory
Thank you
Full transcript