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Transcript of Poverty
There has been a reduction in global poverty.In The Southeast Asian countries due to high economic growth and investments in human resources development,there has been a decline in poverty.In south Asian countries the decline has not been rapid.In Sub-Sahara Africa poverty has rose whereas it is same in Latin America.Poverty in the world is defined by the international poverty line.
Inter state disparities
In 20 states and 7 union territories the poverty ratio is less then national average.In Odisha,Bihar,Assam,Tripura and Uttaranchal Pradesh poverty is still a serious issue. Odisha and Bihar are the two poorest states.
Whereas, there has been a decline in poverty in Jammu and Kashmir,Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu,Gujrat and West Bengal.States like Haryana and Punjab reduce povert with the help of high agricultural growth rates.
Measurement of poverty line in India
Below Poverty Line is an economic benchmark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid.
According to the Tendulkar committee report the poverty line for a person is fixed at ₹816 per month in rural areas and ₹1000 in urban areas.₹27 per day in rural areas and ₹33 per day in urban areas.
The formula for food requirement while estimating poverty line is based on calorie requirement.The calorie needs vary depending on age,sex and the persons occupation.In India 2400 calories per person per day in rural India and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas is the calorie requirement.Since the people living in rural areas engage more in physical work so their calorie requirements are more.
Condition where people's basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter are not being met.
Anti poverty measures
1. Integrated Rural Development Programme:
The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), which was introduced in 1978-79 and universalized from 2nd October, 1980, aimed at providing assistance to the rural poor in the form of subsidy and bank credit for productive employment opportunities through successive plan periods.
2. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana/Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana:
The NREP and RLEGP were merged in April 1989, under Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY). The JRY was meant to generate meaningful employment opportunities for the unemployed and underemployed in rural areas through the creation of economic infrastructure and community and social assets.
3. Employment Assurance Scheme:
The Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) was launched on 2nd October, 1993. The EAS was designed to provide employment in the form of manual work in the lean of agricultural season. The works taken up under the programme were expected to lead to the creation of durable economic and social infrastructure and address the needs of people.
4. Food for Work Programme:
The Food for Work Programme was started in 2000-01 as a component of EAS. It aims at enhancing food security through wage employment. Food grains are supplied to states free of cost, however, the supply of food grains from the Food Corporation of India (FCI) godowns has been slow.
5. Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana:
The JGSY, EAS and Food for Work Programme were revamped and merged under the new Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) Scheme from 1st September, 2001. The main objective of the scheme continues to be the generation of wage employment, creation of durable economic infrastructure in rural areas and provision of food and nutrition security for the poor.
1. Rapidly Rising Population:
The population during the last 45 years has increased at the rate of 2.2% per annum. On average 17 million people are added every year to its population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.
2. Low Productivity in Agriculture:
The level of productivity in agriculture is low due to subdivided and fragmented holdings, lack of capital, use of traditional methods of cultivation, illiteracy etc. This is the main cause of poverty in the country.
3. Under Utilized Resources:
The existence of under employment and disguised unemployment of human resources and under utilization of resources has resulted in low production in agricultural sector. This brought a down fall in their standard of living.
4. Low Rate of Economic Development:
The rate of economic development in India has been below the required level. Therefore, there persists a gap between level of availability and requirements of goods and services. The net result is poverty.
6. Price Rise:
The continuous and steep price rise has added to the miseries of poor. It has benefited a few people in the society and the persons in lower income group find it difficult to get their minimum needs.
The continuously expanding army of unemployed is another cause of poverty. The job seeker is increasing in number at a higher rate than the expansion in employment opportunities.
The social set up is still backward and is not conducive to faster development. Laws of inheritance, caste system, traditions and customs are putting hindrances in the way of faster development and have aggravate" the problem of poverty.