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Transcript of Standardized Testing
Kayla Doty The current emphasis on Standardized testing in public schools inhibits creativity in both students and teachers. Supporting Arguments Early History
Standardized Testing First introduced by two Boston school reformers.
These tests were devised to provide a "single standard by which to judge and compare the output of each school."
They gathered objective information about teaching quality as well. The Kansas Silent Reading Test (1914) is the earliest known published multiple-choice test.
Developed by Frank J. Kelly the test was created to reduce "time and effort" in administration and scoring. The IBM ® 805 Test Scoring Machine was launched commercially in 1938.
This made grading multiple-choice tests quicker and more efficient. Standardized tests have been
a part of American education since the mid-1800s Concerns about the testing were voiced as early as 1906. Previous Presidential Education Reform America 2000
George H.W. Bush Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Lyndon B. Johnson Improving Americas Schools Act
Bill Clinton Passed with bipartisan support and signed by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. Mandated annual testing in reading and math (and later science) in grades 3 through 8 and then again in 10th grade.
* If schools did not show sufficient "Adequate Yearly Progress", they faced sanctions and the possibility of being taken over by the state or closed. Annual state spending on standardized tests rose from $423 million before the NCLB to almost $1.1 billion in 2008 Barack Obama's
Race to the Top No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) Proposal for an overhaul of the NCLB, promising further incentives to states if they develop improved assessments.
Also emphasizing other indicators like pupil attendance, graduation rates and learning climates as well as test scores. Standardized testing takes away from a teacher's personal instruction time. It provides a narrow curriculum and drill-like "teaching to the test" methods.
Excessive testing undermines America's ability to produce innovators and critical thinkers.
This results in less engaging learning experiences for students. The test is so heavy with information students need memorize, that they do not have time to teach the way they prefer. Teaching for the standardized test also limits the way that the information is presented.
This type of education is designed to teach children to think only about those things that test makers have deemed important. Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Memorization Linguistic Logical Musical Analytical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Practical Creative The members of Congress who are passing this legislation to mandate these standardized assessments are not considering the other intelligences that students posses. In today's classroom, the students have diverse backgrounds, a variety of achievement levels and different learning styles which will all affect their ability to acquire knowledge.
There are more skills that students should prepare for before they enter the next stage in their lives.
There are also other ways to measure progress in the classroom other than high stakes standardized testing.
Standardized testing is really measuring what matters least. There are many different sets of skills that they are not testing. Employability and Career Skills
*skills that should be practiced in classrooms Collaboration Critical Thinking Self
Direction Adaptability Technology Literacy Communication Problem Solving/
Reasoning Our education system needs to provide students with skills that will help them later in life.
Right now we have a curriculum based on memorization.
Students are expected to memorize certain facts that they then forget after a standardized test.
Students need to be prepared with real world skills and then be assessed in alternate ways. Involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, it also entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations. the ability to analyze and evaluate ideas, solve problems and make decisions. the ability that individuals use to find the best fit between themselves and the demands of the environment. involves going beyond what is given to generate novel and interesting ideas. Emphasizes equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability.
In addition, the bill aims to shorten the achievement gaps between students by providing each child with fair and equal opportunities to achieve an exceptional education Signed in 1994 to provide extra help to disadvantaged students and holding schools accountable for their results at the same level as other students It proposed the creation of national standards and voluntary national tests (American Achievement Tests) in five core subject areas-English, math, science, history, and geography-to be administered in grades four, eight, and twelve. Instruction time is being consumed by repetitive test preparation Standardized test have been around for a very long time, we have entered a global age with new skills that have to be learned. Standardized test do not measure the ability to think deeply or creatively in any field. New York State Department of Education stated, "It is a very great and more serious evil to sacrifice systematic instruction and a comprehensive view of the subject for the scrappy and unrelated knowledge gained by students who are persistently drilled in the mere answering of questions issued by the Education Department or other governing bodies." Qualities that standardized testing cannot measure include: Resilience
Creativity Standardized test are no longer effective. They are ultimately discouraging creativity in not only the students but teachers as well. “Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid.”
Albert Einstein REFERENCES
Stone, Lawre, Teacher at Hawthorn Valley School/ Public School Teacher. E-mail interview. Jan, 2013. (Primary Source)
Akhavan, Kambiz. "Standardized Tests." Standardized Tests - ProCon.org. AMAG, Inc., 1 Jan. 2012. Web. 09 Jan. 2013.
Gaylor, Beth. “Why Standardized Testing Isn’t Always the Right Answer.” GSCU.edu. Np. 1 May. 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2012.
Griffin, Patrick. "What Are 21st-Century Skills?" What Are 21st-Century Skills? CISCO, 1 Jan. 2009. Web. 09 Jan. 2013.
IMB. "IBM 805 Test Scoring Machine." IBM Archives:. IMB, 1 Jan. 2004. Web. 05 Mar. 2013.
Paris, K. "Summary of Goals 2000: Educate America Act." Summary of Goals 2000: Educate America Act. NCREL, 1 Jan. 1994. Web. 05 Mar. 2013.
Pollard, Jonathan. "Standardized Testing: Measuring What Matters Least." Standardized Testing: Measuring What Matters Least. World Prosperity, Ltd, 1 Jan. 2002. Web. 09 Jan. 2013.
Smith, Mark K. "Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education." Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education. INFED, 1 Jan. 2002. Web. 05 Mar. 2013.
The Social Welfare. "Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965." Social Welfare History Project. TSW: History Project, 1 Jan. 2008. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. Students possess so much more than the ability to memorize information.
Why are we not being evaluated on these intelligences? "Standardized testing diminishes the chances that a teacher can allow students to be creative. By limiting the content, teachers lose the chance to allow students to investigate what they find interesting. " "For the first time I am now teaching to the test- mainly due to APPR." "It forces me to cover a tremendous amount of material ("An inch deep and a mile wide.") at a very shallow level. It also dictates the amount of time I spend per topic and forces me to spend time on topics I don't value as highly." "I feel like a robot that is controlled by State Education." "It forces teachers to teach to the tests. It does not allow for certain activities and topics due to time constraints." "It is very constraining. There are topics that I find boring myself, but we are forced to teach it. Does one really need to know what an oblate spheroid is to be successful in life?"
42 One similarity between the Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire is that both
(1) reached their height of power at the same time
(2) developed parliamentary governments
(3) ensured equality for women
(4) declined because of corruption in government GLOBAL HISTORY REGENTS EXAM QUESTION
JUNE 2008 Testing maybe the easiest way to gather information, but it is not the fairest. PRIMARY SOURCE "Many inner city students suffer through the Regents, many times because of language issues and cultural differences. I think standardized testing has become too rigid and too important." - Lawre Stone "As a teacher, I am glad not to be beholden to the Regents exams. Part of the reason that I switched to Waldorf Education was to be free of that burden. In Public Schools, I had to teach to the test. Now, I teach to the child. Much better, in my opinion."
-Lawre Stone In Conclusion...