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Literary Terms IB Y1

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Shayda Swann

on 6 November 2012

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Transcript of Literary Terms IB Y1

The relationship between the action and the subject it is describing; the subject is doing the action. Active voice Repetition of similar sounding beginning letters in a group of words. Alliteration A casual reference to a well known person, place, or thing without explanation. Allusion Comparing things by their similarities. Analogy Language that is out-dated or old-fashioned. Archaic Language Repetition of similar vowel sounds. Assonance A slanted preference based on personal opinion. Bias A harsh sound. Cacophony A saying that has lost it's original meaning from being overused. Cliche The use of an informal word or phrase used in conversation but not in formal writing. Colloquialism -several silly slugs sang
-rambunctious rabbits run
-crazy Carol caterwauled -lazy lions lick lollipops
-slow soft symphony -a heart is like a pump
-his voice is velvety -Alas!
-Wherefore art thou? -In a fortnight
-She is always twattling! -Green is to go as red is to stop
-tree is to apple as flower is
to plant -I feel like a fish out of water -Stay the course
-What goes around comes around
-In the nick of time -Scared out of my wits
-Every cloud has a silver
lining Colloquial Language Informal speech used in conversation but not in writing. -He is the new Labron James -Your nose should grow
like Pinocchio's! -She is a Scrooge -He's a Romeo with the ladies! -Chocolate is my Achilles' heel! -'Sup? -Wanna go to the beach?
-Y'all are funny! -I have two kids -Let's get some grub! -She is doing her homework. -The boy is eating -The dog bit the bone -The hunter saw the deer -I am eating pie -Try to light the fire -It's hot and it's monotonous -The crumbling thunder -Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geese -I must confess that in my quest I felt depressed and restless -She was biased towards her daughter -He has a bias against dogs after he was bitten. -The teacher had a bias towards quiet children -She was biased against all popular music -I am biased towards contemporary dance -"'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves" -"Lick, crack, sick, hack. The beggar harried her open back" -"resist urges prompting statuesque stillness,
the benedict trick temptation to cower" -"And thou, who didst the stars and sunbeams know,/Self-school'd, self-scann'd, self-honor'd, self-secure,/Didst tread on earth unguess'd at" "A toad the power mower caught," Discuss the similarities between two or more things. Comparison -In Romeo and Juliet and To Kill a Mockingbird people are judged on where they come from. -The characters were portrayed in the Pride and Prejudice movie just as they were in the book -Dogs and cats are alike because they are both house pets -Humans are like animals because they
need to satisfy their primary needs first Extra meaning that a word has beyond the literal definition Connotation -"set the wall between us once again." -that person is a snake -she was very childish -the apartment was very cheap -she is so skinny! Repetition of ending consonant sounds Consonance -pitter patter -dawn goes down -alight, sweet, and swift -odds and ends -"six sick bricks tick" Discuss the difference between two or more things Contrast -one sister loves math and the other loves P.E -American football vs. European football -he is taller than his friend -one room was bright and welcoming while the
other was dark and dismal -straight hair is smooth and curly hair
is coarse Two lines of verse Couplet -"Blessed are you whose worthiness gives scope,/Being had, to triumph; being lacked, to hope." -"So, till the judgement that yourself arise,/You live in this, and dwell in lovers' eyes." -"Tir'd with all these, from these would I be gone,/Save that, to die, I leave my love alone." -"You still shall live, such virtue hath my pen,/Where breath most breathes, even in the
mouths of men." -"How like Eve's apple doth thy beauty grow,/If thy sweet virtue answer not thy show!" Direct dictionary definition of a word. Denotation -Snake: limbless, scaly, elongated reptile -Childish: of, like, or befitting a child -Cheap: costing very little -Skinny: Narrow or slender Cat: a smal domestic carnivore Conversation between two or more characters Dialogue -"I wasn’t planning on going anywhere—"
"I can see that. Where’s your coat?" -Annina: Monsieur Rick, what kind of a man is Captain Renault?
Rick: Oh, he's just like any other man, only more so. -MG: And you laugh if it's funny?
HP: I laugh like hell. -"Jim, man, you're not making any sense," Blair said. "I can't understand what you're talking about." -NAMRATA:Hi Lakshmi, How are you?
LAKSHMI: Hi Namrata, I am good. The choice of words or phrases in writing. Diction A character is described directly by the author Direct presentation -"she was pretty, smart, she was my wife" -Mary is shy and timid. She often spends time alone -He was tall with dark blue eyes -The older daughter was extremely charismatic! -My best friend was the most amazing listener
that I have ever met. A lack of consistency or harmony. Dissonance -"My stick fingers click with a snicker
And, chuckling, they knuckle the keys" -"Fierce-throated beauty!
Roll through my chant with all thy lawless music,
thy swinging lamps at night." -"Call the roller of big cigars,
The muscular one, and bid him whip
In kitchen cups concupiscent curds." -Klingon -Skirting the river road, (my forenoon walk, my rest,)
Skyward in air a sudden muffled sound, the dalliance of the eagles, A less offensive or more subtle way of expressing something. Euphemism -Passed away -vertically challenged -lose your lunch -the call of nature -big boned Pleasant and harmonious sounding words Euphony -Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; -Who's woods these are I think I know
His house is in the village though -For fair without the fair within to hide -silken sad uncertain
rustling of each purple curtain... -To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow / Creeps in this petty pace from day to day.” -Lyric -Rap -Blues -Expository -Lyric An exaggeration. Hyperbole -I'm so hungry I could eat a horse -My backpack weighs a thousand pounds -I've been waiting forever -You move at a snail's pace -I have a million things to do an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one Iamb -da DUM -tick TOK -To swell the gourd -plump the hazel shells -To be or not to be 5 meters of iamb Iambic pentameter -Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, -And I do love thee: therefore, go with me;
I'll give thee fairies to attend on thee, -Henceforth be earls, the first that ever Scotland
In such an honour named. What's more to do, -O that this too too solid flesh would melt,
Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew! -The appetite may sicken, and so die.
That strain again! it had a dying fall when the author creates mental images Imagery -"the toaster a simple tin box, a kind of little hut with slit and slanted sides, that rested over a gas burner" -"k-choo-k-choo-k--the metronomic rhythm of an Amtrak train" -the small, soggy, icy garment -"I smelled the warm, sweet, all-pervasive smell of silage" -"has about as much chance as a one-armed blind man in a dark room trying to shove a pound of melted butter into a wild-cat’s ear with a red-hot needle." a rhyme that is in a single line of verse Internal rhyme -"In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud" -"Whiles all the night through fog-smoke white," -"Just turn me loose let me straddle my old saddle," -"While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping," -"I went to town to buy a gown." language used by a specific group of people Jargon -business jargon "bang for your buck" -police jargon: "10-4" -political jargon: "left-wing" -computer jargon: "brb" -sports jargon: "OT" comparing two things without "like" or "as" Metaphor -he is a giant -she is lightning fast -"the streets were a furnace" -"my heart is a lonely hunter" -"words are but wind" patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables occurring in a line Meter -To be, / or not / to be: / that is / the ques- / -tion -Now is / the win- / -ter of / our dis- / content -Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste -A milk-white Hind, immortal and unchang'd, -So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, Words that describe a sound Onomatopoeia -drip drop -tip tap -whoosh -knock-knock -ding-dong A phrase that contradicts itself Oxymoron -jumbo shrimp -living dead -icy hot -civil war -act natural Paradox A statement that contradicts itself but still makes sense. -Less is more -to infinity and beyond -"The swiftest traveler is he that goes afoot" -"War is peace" -George Orwell Parallelism Repetition to make a point "When you are right you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative." "New roads; new ruts." "Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal." "O well for the fisherman's boy,
That he shouts with his sister at play!
O well for the sailor lad,
That he sings in his boat on the bay!" "The loss we felt was not the loss of ham but the loss of pig." Passive Voice When the focus is on the action and not the subject -The painting was sold -The country was discovered. -There goes Shayda -Move Mrs. McLeod Idiom A saying that cannot be directly translated into another language. -every cloud has a silver lining -that drives me up the wall! -if we play our cards right -I work the graveyard shift -He jumped the gun Pastoral Pertaining to the countryside or rural areas -"A path, old tree, goes by thee crooking on," -"Civilisation of court life is hypocritical, false;
Pastoral life of country side is true, natural!" -"Near the flowering meadow-
Lilac's they scent the breeze-" -"the breeze which rustles in the trees
assisted by the birds and bees" -"You sit in the garden all afternoon
this drives me up the ivied wall." Personification Giving human characteristics to something that is non-human -The trees danced in the wind -The wind whistled -Opportunity knocked on the door -Sunlight tip-toed on the window -Snow hugged the branches Proverb A wise saying -Time heals all wounds -Time is money -Absense makes the heart grow fonder -Curiosity killed the cat -All that glitters is not gold Pun A comical play on words -That's very punny! -Kings worry about a
receding heir line. -Time flies like an arrow,
fruit flies like a banana. -A man's home is his
castle, in a manor speaking. -Without geometry, life is pointless. Quatrain Four lines of poetry unified by a rhyme scheme -I often wish that I
Could be a kite up in the sky,
And ride upon the breeze and go
Whichever way I choose to blow. -Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.
All the King's horses and all the King's men
Couldn't put Humpty together again -The mountain frames the sky (a)
As a shadow of an eagle flies by. (a)
With clouds hanging at its edge (b)
A climber proves his courage on its rocky ledge. -The sense of danger must not disappear:
The way is certainly both short and steep,
However gradual it looks from here;
Look if you like, but you will have to leap. Refrain Repetition of lines in a song or poem. Rhetorical Question A question that does not want an answer -"If practice makes perfect, and no one's perfect, then why practice?" -deck the halls with boughs of holly, fa la la la la, la la la la
tis the season to be jolly, fa la la la la, la la la la -Are you crazy? -Are you serious? -do you really think I'm that stupid? -Don't you think so? Rhetoric The art of persuasive writing, but often insincere -politicians -advertisements/propaganda -"I Have a Dream" speech -"ye shall not die: How should ye? By the fruit? It gives you life
To knowledge; by the threatener? look on mee,
mee who have touch’d and tasted,
yet both lives.
And life more perfect have attained than fate
meant mee.” Rhyme Scheme Pattern of similar sounding words -From childhood’s hour I have not been a
As others were; I have not seen a
As others saw; I could not bring b
My passions from a common spring. b -Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, a
Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through b
Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs a
And towards our distant rest began to trudge. b -Whose woods these are I think I know - a
His house is in the village though - a
He will not see me stopping here - b
To watch his woods fill up with snow -a Rhythm a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. -'rat-a-tat-a-tat.' -The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. -Fire and lye
in the river sky -Roses are red, violets are blue -"When the dog bites,
When the bee stings,
When I'm feeling sad." Sarcasm verbal irony -"Oh, a sarcasm detector. That’s a really useful invention!" -It's a really good idea to fail all of your classes. -Oh great, I love when it rains all day and I can't go outside! -Wow you must be an expert at that! -"Slow down! You're driving too fast!"
"Sorry, I forgot you were the expert driver!" Sestet The last six lines of a sonnet -So answerest thou; but why not rather say:
Hath man no second life? – Pitch this one high!
Sits there no judge in Heaven, our sin to see? –
More strictly, then, the inward judge obey!
Was Christ a man like us? Ah! let us try
If we then, too, can be such men as he!
-The Better Part -Yet morning smiles the busy race to cheer,
And new-born pleasure brings to happier men:
The fields to all their wonted tribute bear;
To warm their little loves the birds complain:
I fruitless mourn to him that cannot hear,
And weep the more, because I weep in vain. Simile A comparison using "like" or "as" -tall as a giant -Busy as a bee -cute as a button -as black as coal -They fight like cats and dogs Slang informal language -Howdy -Groovy -Dude -Wassup' -Yo! Stereotype A widely held opinion of a group of people -all cops eat donuts -little girls play with dolls -boys like blue -Men are strong -Irish people love potatoes Symbol Understatement Making something seem less important or extreme than it is -"A soiled baby, with a neglected nose, cannot be conscientiously regarded as a thing of beauty." -calling a sword cut "merely a scratch" -"I have to have this operation. It isn't very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain." -"Last week I saw a woman flayed, and you will hardly believe how much it altered her person for the worse." -"To say the Israelis were taken by surprise is to say the Great Wall of China is long." Wit Keen and quick humor -(A politician needs) the ability to foretell what is going to happen tomorrow, next week, next month, and next year. And to have the ability afterwards to explain why it didn't happen. -I am fond of pigs. Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals. -However beautiful the strategy, you should occasionally look at the results. -Man will occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of the time he will pick himself up and continue on. -Lady Astor told Churchill, 'If you were my husband, I'd poison your tea." He replied "Madam, if you were my wife I would drink it.' Allegory A work that can reveal a hidden meaning or moral -Lamb to the Slaughter -Devil on the Cross Antagonist The character who is against the protagonist. The "bad guy" -Voldemort in Harry Potter -Darth Vader in Star Wars -The Joker in Batman Anti-Climax A less point in the work -"The holy passion of Friendship is of so sweet and steady and loyal and enduring a nature that it will last through a whole lifetime" "And as I’m sinkin’
The last thing that I think
Is, did I pay my rent?"
(Jim O'Rourke, "Ghost Ship in a Storm") Antithesis Contrasting the thesis/main idea -"You're easy on the eyes
Hard on the heart." -We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools." When something represents something else. A rose is a symbol of love A dove is a symbol of peace A rock is a symbol of strength Red is a symbol for passion Unicorns symbolize innocence Apostrophe Addressing someone or something that is not physically there "Oh, Death, be not proud" "Ingratitude! thou marble-hearted fiend, / More hideous when thou show'st thee in a child / Than the sea-monster Argumentative Essay An essay that discusses either the pros or cons of
a controversial topic -The pros of diet and exercise -The cons of technology Anecdotal Evidence Evidence that comes from a short account of what happened, not scientific -"Some years ago when we were a young nation and our people began visiting the lands of our forefathers, these American tourists were rather brash, unsophisticated by European standards, but blessed with a spirit of independence and pride." -"Criminals are never given the punishment they deserve. Just look at that guy who tried to kill that little girl. After the plea bargaining, he practically got off scot free!" Aside When an actor says something to the audience that is not heard by other actors on stage -Simonides: Traitor, thou liest.
Pericles: Traitor!
Simonides: Ay, traitor.
Pericles: Even in his throat--unless it be the king--
That calls me traitor, I return the lie.
Simonides: [Aside] Now, by the gods, I do applaud his courage. -"If you are slow at this point, reader, to credit what I tell you, it will not be remarkable. For I who observed it, can barely allow myself to believe." Atmosphere The emotions inspired by a work -"Elsewhere, night falls, but in Moonlight Bay, it steals upon us with barely a whisper, like a gentle dark-sapphire surf licking a beach." -"The womanraised her hands and stared at them; stared through them.
Her voice was soft but tense. "Blood on his hands." Her own hands were clean and pale." Audience The group of people that a work is intended for -the audience for Dr. Seuss books is children -Shakespeare's plays were intended for adult audiences Autobiography An account of a person's life written by themself "The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" "The Recollections of the Development of My Mind and Character" -Charles Darwin Ballad A poem that tells a story, is often musical -I'll tell a tale, a thrilling tale of love beyond compare
I knew a lad not long ago more gorgeous than any I've seen.
And in his eyes I found my self a'falling in love with the swain.
Oh, the glorious fellow I met by the ocean with eyes of deep-sea green!
He was a rugged sailor man with eyes of deep-sea green,
And I a maid, a tavern maid! Whose living was serving beer.
So with a kiss and with a wave, off on his boat he sailed
And left me on the dock, the theif! Without my heart, oh dear!
And with a heart that's lost at sea, I go on living still.
I still am now still serving beer in that tavern by the sea.
And though the pay check's still the same, the money won't go as far
For now I feed not just myself, but my little one and me!
So let that be a lesson, dear, and keep your heart safely hid.
I gave mine to a sailing thief with gorgeous eyes of green.
Save yours for a sweeter lad who makes the land his home.
Ah me! If only I'd never met that sailor by the sea!
-- Lonnie Adrift "That which befalls me in my Lady's
presence/Bars explanation intellectual./I seem to see a lady wonderful/Spring forth between her lips, one whom no sense/Can fully tell the mind of, and one
whence/Another, in beauty,
springeth marvelous,/From whom a star goes forth and speaketh thus:/'Now my salvation is gone forth from thee.'" Ballad Stanza A four lined stanza, second and fourth lines rhyme and have three stresses each and the first and third lines are unrhymed and have four stresses each -The night was dark, no father was there,
The child was wet with dew;
The mire was deep, and the child did weep,
And away the vapour flew. -My wings shall ride the silken morn,
Covering the silent sunlit sky,
Under Cancer and Capricorn,
Flying where no bird can fly. Biography The story of someone's life written by someone else -"Alice Walker: A Life" -"Her Own Woman: The Life of Mary Wollstonecraft" Blank Verse A poem that has unrhymed iambic pentameter -Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time;
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more: it is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing. -What is the boy now, who has lost his ball,
What, what is he to do? I saw it go
Merrily bouncing, down the street, and then
Merrily over-there it is in the water!
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