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The Art of colouring hair

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Hannah Ratcliffe

on 26 January 2015

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Transcript of The Art of colouring hair

The aim of this unit is to provide you with the knowledge and skills to change hair tones using basic techniques.
Can not lighten the hair
Can be patchy on porous/ damaged hair Results may be translucent on hair with a lot of grey/white
Not many colours to choose from.
Only last for 6-8 washes.
The Art of Colouring Hair
At the end of this unit you will...
1. Be able to prepare for colouring hair
2. Be able to provide a colouring service
How will I be assessed?
practical tasks
knowledge and understanding task(s) in an on-line test.
What am I going to learn about in this unit?
Preparing the work area/client for colouring
Working safely and professionally
Tools and equipment
Basic consultation
The colouring process and techniques available
Finishing the service and after care advice
Colouring is way of changing how the hair looks
write down
Reasons for Colouring
To lighten the hair
Add colour and depth to hair
Keep up with fashion
Compliment the style
Cover white/grey hair
Enhance the cut
Add shine to the hair

When looking at how light or dark hair is we call it the natural depth, level or base.
Natural base
Physical effects of colouring products on the hair
Effects of temporary colour
The colour molecules or pigments are too large to penetrate the cuticle and enter the hair shaft, so they coat the outside of the hair only.
There is no penetration of the hair cortex.
Remember the cuticle and cortex?
Types of Colour available . Before selecting a colour you should know what it can and cannot do
Watch the demonstration- Fill in worksheets

Shampoo and towel dry the hair

Section the hair into hot cross bun if it is long, or comb into style if short

Put a golf ball sized amount of mousse onto your hand or on the comb.

Comb on to the hair making sure all the hair is covered and it is even
Check the hairline for stains and remove if needed.

Wash all tools and equipment immediately
Style as usual
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
The effects of semi-permanent colour

Different sized colour molecules enter the cortex and are oxidized by the oxidant.
The effects of quasi-permanent colour
The primary colours
The secondary colours are achieved by combing TWO of the primary colours.
The secondary colours: Orange
The secondary colours: Green
The secondary colours: Violet
The colour star
Applying the colour star.
/0 natural
/1 ash (predominately grey)
/3 golden
/4 red
/5 mahogany
/6 violet
/7 brunette
/8 pearl (predominately blue)
/9 soft ash
12/0 special blondes 10/0 lightest blonde 9/ very light blonde 8/ light blonde 7/ medium blonde
6/ dark blonde 5/ light brown 4/ medium brown 3/ dark brown 2/ black
Unit H30/302
Hair condition
Very porous hair grabs colour quicker
very porous hair fades quicker
The hairs ability to absorb and the speed at which it does so
And the rate at which it looses it.
or resistant hair
hair may need to develop longer,
or even pre soften
Hair texture
what is it?
Fine texture will take colour quicker
development times may need to change
peroxide strength may need to change
resistant hair may need more product
Porous hair is thirsty hair
this will allow the colour to travel through the layers of the cuticle quicker.

The thicker the hair the more layers of cuticle there can be.

Finer hair has fewer cuticle layers and could result in the hair looking darker or more tonal than expected

Finer hair can be weaker.
skin tone / eye colour
What types are they?

what colours work best?
Client requirements and lifestyle
what the client wants
Small colour molecules or pigments are deposited into the hair cuticle and the outer edge of the hair cortex.
will not lighten,
but will darken and add tone
Types of Colour available . Before selecting a colour you should know what it can and cannot do
Condition can be improved
Adds shine
Can be used to add depth and tone to the hair
Subtle toning of grey/white hair
Can be used for tonal correction on bleached/ coloured hair
Do not usually cause problems with the skin
Therefore skin test is not normally required
No commitment
Types of Colour available . Before selecting a colour you should know what it can and cannot do
What is colour?
Principles of colouring
The primary and secondary
colours on the star are
sometimes given numbers.
These numbers tell
us what colours/
tones are in the shade
on the chart.
Find colours that neutralise Unwanted colours/tones.
Opposite colours neutralise
It is important to get it right! as you may create colours you dont want!

Shades on the colour chart can be made up of different variations of tones mixed together.
The International Colour Chart ( ICC)
Manufacturers use numbers to describe their colours, as well as using names.
The numbering system is known as the International Colour Code.
These numbers tell the user exactly what depth (how light or dark) and tone the hair is.
Except for white hair, white hair contains no pigment and is therefore colourless.
We can use the chart to help us pick colours for our clients.
What is it?
This describes how light or dark a colour is. And is usually in a row down the side of the shade chart.

Depth ranges on a scale from black (1)

To lightest blonde (10)

The first number next to the shade tells us how light or dark the colour is
Tones usually run in columns across the top.
This describes the colour/tone we actually see. It may be golden, ash, copper etc.

The number or letter used to specify the tone always follows a point or oblique stroke after the depth
pairs /group activity
Must: Recognise your partners natural/ artificial depth and tone according to the shade chart,

should: Identify if their partners colour is cool or warm

could: select colours to help neutralise tones

You have 5 minutes and must write your answers on the mirror
Each group to come up with 3 for the following:

Group A- what questions will we ask the clients to identify if a semi colour is appropriate?

Group B– What questions do we need to ask about client and their hair?

Group c– what aftercare might we give them?.
Consultation techniques
Colour pigments in paint can be mixed together to produce other new colours.

Like paint, hair colour
can be mixed together
to create different shades.
The colour is designed to fade over a period of 12-18 washes.
Advantages of quasi permanent colour.
lasts longer than a semi
Leaves hair in good condition
Easy for all over colouring
can be used as a fashion statement
More colours to choose from
can be used for toning/neutralising colour
Is an alternative to permanent colouring
Disadvantages to quasi permanent colour
Needs a skin test 48 hours beforehand
will not cover 100% of white hair
Can leave a regrowth
Can be patchy on porous hair.
Cannot lighten hair.
Demonstrate the correct application of a quasi permanent colour.

must: assess the demonstration against the performance criteria
Should: summarise how the criteria was met,
could: evaluate the tutors performance.
practice the correct application of a quasi permanent colour.
must: perform an appropriate colour consultation on a partner. Should: perform an application of a quasi colour on a block could: Evaluate their performance against the exemplar demonstration.
using the question templates below devise 3 questions for your partner:
True or false........?

can you describe.....................?

can you explain why...........................?
Remember you will need to know the answer to mark them!!
you have 5 minutes
What test??
What test???
Some colouring products can make the hair weaker, or cause the hair to break.
Results of tests
Skin test
Porosity test
Elasticity test
Apply a small amount of the mixed product to an area of clean skin behind the ear.
Cover with a plaster or dressing and leave for the required period of time.
Coats the hair
The molecules on the outside wash off first

the mild oxidant slightly swells some of the molecules inside the cortex. The colour molecules do not become very large and are gradually lost each time the hair is shampooed.
The quasi-permanent colour is mixed with a low-volume oxidant (1:2 ratio).
Hair colour basics.....
When the hair is in its germinating stage of hair growth, the hair colour pigments (melanin) are deposited into the hair shaft at the papilla.
Hair colour basics.....
The two main melanin’s (pigments) found in the cortex are,

and Pheomelanin.
The pigments responsible for black and brown hair
Brown/black pigments are larger more oval shaped and easier to remove from the hair, They are more abundant in dark hair.
Responsible for red and yellow hair
They are small and rod shaped, are more abundant in lighter/more red hairand are more difficult to remove.
......There are others , but these are the main ones.
The hair colour you see if affected by the amount of these pigments that are present,
and the light it is seen in.
These colours can not be mixed from other colours.
The effects of permanent colour – stage 1
The permanent colour is mixed with hydrogen peroxide.
6% or 20 vol : * Enables coverage of white hair.
* Adding tone or depth to same
depth or darker.
*Will lighten one shade.
9% 0r 30 vol : * will lighten three levels above
base 6/ two levels below base 4.
12% or 40 vol : * Will lift four levels above a base
6 (with high lift tint- 12 line)

When mixed with hydrogen peroxide, the small colourless molecules penetrate the hair cuticle and the hair cortex.
Small colourless molecules mixed with
oxidant penetrate the cuticle, into the cortex
small colourless
Molecules mixed with oxidant
penetrate the cuticle,
into the cortex

small molecules swell and
become larger due to the oxygen
The oxidised molecules swell to form large, colour molecules.
The hydrogen peroxide begins to break down into water and oxygen.
The oxygen from the hydrogen peroxide joins together with and oxidises the small colourless molecules.

The large colour molecules are unable to pass back through the hair cuticle and become trapped within the hair cortex.
Before we apply we must always read the manufactures instructions... why?
Tools and equipment
clients protective equipment
Throw away gloves
wash comb thoroughly in soapy water.
Tools and equipment
clients protective equipment
Throw away gloves
wash comb thoroughly in soapy water.
Tools and equipment
White hair happens when the natural process of melanin forming in the germinating stages decreases or stops
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